Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease in humans and affects both man and women. The clinical and public health implications of the disease are substantial because of the mortality, morbidity, and cost of medical care associated with osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporosis is diagnosed on the basis of a low-impact or fragility fracture or low bone mineral density, which was best assessed by central dual-energy x-ray absosptiometry. Both nonpharmacological therapy (calcium and vitamin D supplementation, weight-bearing exercise, and fall prevention) and pharmacological treatments (antiresorptive and anabolic agents) may be helpful in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Therefore, clinicians need to be vigilant in instituting primary prevention measures for those at high risk for osteoporosis and in instituting treatment for patients diagnosed as having the disease either by screening or a history of fracture. This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, screening, prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis.
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