The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. COHb Carboxyhemoglobin CPET Cardiopulmonary exercise testing CXR Chest radiograph DLCO Carbon monoxide diffusing capacity EBCT Electron beam computed tomography ECG Electrocardiogram EELV End-expiratory lung volume (EELV1/4TLC - IC) EILV End inspiratory lung volume (EILV1/4TLV - IRV) EVH Eucapneic voluntary hyperventilation ExtFVL Exercise tidal flow-volume loop f Respiratory frequency FEV1 Forced expiratory volume in first second of exhalation FVL Flow-volume loop FVC Forced vital capacity GERD Gastroesophageal reflux disease GFR Glomerular filtration rate HCO3 Serum bicarbonate HIV Human immunodeficiency virus HR Heart rate HRCT High resolution computed tomography HRR Heart rate reserve IET Incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test IC Inspiratory capacity ILD Interstitial lung disease MEP Maximum expiratory pressure MFVL Maximal volitional flow-volume envelope MIP Maximum inspiratory pressure MVV Maximum voluntary ventilation O2 Oxygen O2 pulse VO2/HR, a noninvasive estimate of stroke volume PAH Pulmonary arterial hypertension PaO2 Arterial partial pressure of oxygen P(A-a) O2 Alveolar-arterial difference in partial pressure of oxygen PETCO2 Partial pressure of end tidal CO2 PETO2 Partial pressure of end tidal O2 PVO2 Venous partial pressure of oxygen RER Respiratory exchange ratio RV Residual volume SaO2 Arterial oxygen saturation SpO2 Noninvasive oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry SV Stroke volume TLC Total lung capacity VCD Vocal cord dysfunction CO2 Carbon dioxide output D/T Dead space to tidal volume ratio E Minute ventilation Emax Maximal E achieved during exercise E/CO2 Minute ventilation over carbon dioxide output, a marker of ventilatory efficiency E/O2 Minute ventilation over oxygen uptake, a marker of ventilatory efficiency O2 Oxygen uptake O2/kg Oxygen uptake normalized for body mass O2max Maximal oxygen uptake value O2peak Peak oxygen consumption V/Q Ventilation/Perfusion VR Ventilatory reserve (Emax/MVV; MVV - Emax) V-slope Plot of CO2 vs. O2, used to determine anaerobic threshold T Tidal volume VTE Venous thromboembolism WR Work rate I. Introduction Dyspnea is a common complaint. An estimated 3-25% of the general community has been reported to complain of shortness of breath (1). Dyspnea is the presenting complaint for 3.7% of ambulatory medicine visits (2), 2.7% of emergency department visits (3), and 15-25% of all hospital admissions (4,5).
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Dyspnea|
|Subtitle of host publication||Mechanisms, Measurement and Management|
|Number of pages||57|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2005|
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