Diabetes mellitus type 2 in aviators

A preventable disease

Lawrence W. Steinkraus, Walter Cayce, Allan Golding

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: The current epidemic of obesity and resultant diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is a tsunami that will impact healthcare worldwide and lap over into aerospace medicine. Metabolic syndrome (MBS) is the major link between obesity and DMT2. Methods: A review of U.S. Air Force Aeromedical Consult Service (ACS) records was accomplished looking at aviators with a diagnosis of DMT2. Case reports of three flyers with DMT2 are presented and discussed. Other aeromedical agencies were contacted regarding their experiences and this information was summarized. A literature review on DMT2, obesity, and metabolic syndrome was accomplished. Results: Of 70 charts for flyers identified with diabetes mellitus at the ACS between 1975 and 2000, over 95% were for DMT2. The mean body mass index for these aviators was 26.2. Currently, all services grant restricted waivers for some aviators with DMT2, none in high performance, single-seat aircraft. The FAA is currently allowing most flyers with stable DMT2 to operate aircraft in all categories with specific restrictions. Discussion: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are becoming increasingly prevalent in the aviation community. Aggressive actions to limit weight gain and identify those at risk for developing DMT2 must be considered for all populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1091-1100
Number of pages10
JournalAviation Space and Environmental Medicine
Volume74
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2003
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Aviators
Medical problems
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Obesity
Aircraft
Aircraft seats
Aerospace Medicine
Tsunamis
Pilots
Aviation
Weight Gain
Diabetes Mellitus
Medicine
Body Mass Index
Air
Delivery of Health Care

Keywords

  • Diabetes mellitus type 2
  • Insulin resistance
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Steinkraus, L. W., Cayce, W., & Golding, A. (2003). Diabetes mellitus type 2 in aviators: A preventable disease. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, 74(10), 1091-1100.

Diabetes mellitus type 2 in aviators : A preventable disease. / Steinkraus, Lawrence W.; Cayce, Walter; Golding, Allan.

In: Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 74, No. 10, 01.10.2003, p. 1091-1100.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Steinkraus, LW, Cayce, W & Golding, A 2003, 'Diabetes mellitus type 2 in aviators: A preventable disease', Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, vol. 74, no. 10, pp. 1091-1100.
Steinkraus LW, Cayce W, Golding A. Diabetes mellitus type 2 in aviators: A preventable disease. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine. 2003 Oct 1;74(10):1091-1100.
Steinkraus, Lawrence W. ; Cayce, Walter ; Golding, Allan. / Diabetes mellitus type 2 in aviators : A preventable disease. In: Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine. 2003 ; Vol. 74, No. 10. pp. 1091-1100.
@article{6d585b56e8674cdd85d38eb426caf9c1,
title = "Diabetes mellitus type 2 in aviators: A preventable disease",
abstract = "Introduction: The current epidemic of obesity and resultant diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is a tsunami that will impact healthcare worldwide and lap over into aerospace medicine. Metabolic syndrome (MBS) is the major link between obesity and DMT2. Methods: A review of U.S. Air Force Aeromedical Consult Service (ACS) records was accomplished looking at aviators with a diagnosis of DMT2. Case reports of three flyers with DMT2 are presented and discussed. Other aeromedical agencies were contacted regarding their experiences and this information was summarized. A literature review on DMT2, obesity, and metabolic syndrome was accomplished. Results: Of 70 charts for flyers identified with diabetes mellitus at the ACS between 1975 and 2000, over 95{\%} were for DMT2. The mean body mass index for these aviators was 26.2. Currently, all services grant restricted waivers for some aviators with DMT2, none in high performance, single-seat aircraft. The FAA is currently allowing most flyers with stable DMT2 to operate aircraft in all categories with specific restrictions. Discussion: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are becoming increasingly prevalent in the aviation community. Aggressive actions to limit weight gain and identify those at risk for developing DMT2 must be considered for all populations.",
keywords = "Diabetes mellitus type 2, Insulin resistance, Metabolic syndrome, Obesity",
author = "Steinkraus, {Lawrence W.} and Walter Cayce and Allan Golding",
year = "2003",
month = "10",
day = "1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "74",
pages = "1091--1100",
journal = "Aerospace medicine and human performance",
issn = "2375-6314",
publisher = "Aerospace Medical Association",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Diabetes mellitus type 2 in aviators

T2 - A preventable disease

AU - Steinkraus, Lawrence W.

AU - Cayce, Walter

AU - Golding, Allan

PY - 2003/10/1

Y1 - 2003/10/1

N2 - Introduction: The current epidemic of obesity and resultant diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is a tsunami that will impact healthcare worldwide and lap over into aerospace medicine. Metabolic syndrome (MBS) is the major link between obesity and DMT2. Methods: A review of U.S. Air Force Aeromedical Consult Service (ACS) records was accomplished looking at aviators with a diagnosis of DMT2. Case reports of three flyers with DMT2 are presented and discussed. Other aeromedical agencies were contacted regarding their experiences and this information was summarized. A literature review on DMT2, obesity, and metabolic syndrome was accomplished. Results: Of 70 charts for flyers identified with diabetes mellitus at the ACS between 1975 and 2000, over 95% were for DMT2. The mean body mass index for these aviators was 26.2. Currently, all services grant restricted waivers for some aviators with DMT2, none in high performance, single-seat aircraft. The FAA is currently allowing most flyers with stable DMT2 to operate aircraft in all categories with specific restrictions. Discussion: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are becoming increasingly prevalent in the aviation community. Aggressive actions to limit weight gain and identify those at risk for developing DMT2 must be considered for all populations.

AB - Introduction: The current epidemic of obesity and resultant diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is a tsunami that will impact healthcare worldwide and lap over into aerospace medicine. Metabolic syndrome (MBS) is the major link between obesity and DMT2. Methods: A review of U.S. Air Force Aeromedical Consult Service (ACS) records was accomplished looking at aviators with a diagnosis of DMT2. Case reports of three flyers with DMT2 are presented and discussed. Other aeromedical agencies were contacted regarding their experiences and this information was summarized. A literature review on DMT2, obesity, and metabolic syndrome was accomplished. Results: Of 70 charts for flyers identified with diabetes mellitus at the ACS between 1975 and 2000, over 95% were for DMT2. The mean body mass index for these aviators was 26.2. Currently, all services grant restricted waivers for some aviators with DMT2, none in high performance, single-seat aircraft. The FAA is currently allowing most flyers with stable DMT2 to operate aircraft in all categories with specific restrictions. Discussion: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are becoming increasingly prevalent in the aviation community. Aggressive actions to limit weight gain and identify those at risk for developing DMT2 must be considered for all populations.

KW - Diabetes mellitus type 2

KW - Insulin resistance

KW - Metabolic syndrome

KW - Obesity

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0141567586&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0141567586&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 74

SP - 1091

EP - 1100

JO - Aerospace medicine and human performance

JF - Aerospace medicine and human performance

SN - 2375-6314

IS - 10

ER -