Development of an upper extremity outcome measure: The DASH (disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and head)

Pamela L. Hudak, Peter C. Amadio, Claire Bombardier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1962 Scopus citations

Abstract

This paper describes the development of an evaluative outcome measure for patients with upper extremity musculoskeletal conditions. The goal is to produce a brief, self-administered measure of symptoms and functional status, with a focus on physical function, to be used by clinicians in daily practice and as a research tool. This is a joint initiative of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS), the Council of Musculoskeletal Specialty Societies (COMSS), and the Institute for Work and Health (Toronto, Ontario). Our approach is consistent with previously described strategies for scale development. In Stage 1. Item Generation, a group of methodologists and clinical experts reviewed 13 outcome measurement scales currently in use and generated a list of 821 items. In Stage 2a, Initial Item Reduction, these 821 items were reducted to 78 items using various strategies including removal of items which were generic, repetitive, not reflective of disability, or not relevant to the upper extremity or to one of the targeted concepts of symptoms and functional status. Items not highly endorsed in a survey of content experts were also eliminated. Stage 2b. Further Item Reduction, will be based on results of field testing in which patients complete the 78-item questionnaire. This field testing, which is currently underway in 20 centers in the United States, Canada, and Australia, will generate the final format and content of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire. Future work includes plans for validity and reliability testing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)602-608
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Industrial Medicine
Volume29
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 19 1996

Keywords

  • health status assessment
  • outcomes
  • research
  • upper extremity dysfunction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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