Development of a swine model for benign stenosis of the bile duct by endoscopic application of intraluminal thermal injury

Ashwin Rumalla, Bret T. Petersen, Todd H. Baron, Lawrence J. Burgart, Lori J. Herman, Maurits J. Wiersema, Christopher J. Gostout

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Background: A simple animal model is desirable for the study of endoscopic therapies used in the management of biliary strictures. The aim of this study was to identify a method for inducing benign biliary stenoses in a porcine model by using endoscopic techniques. Methods: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography was performed in 9 swine. Intraluminal injury was applied to the common hepatic duct with graded applications of either a heat probe or a multipolar probe. Cholangiography was repeated at 7-day intervals. If a stricture was not identified by 28 days, injury was created at another site in the common hepatic duct by using a higher energy dose. After a stricture was identified, the animal was killed and bile duct samples were obtained for histopathologic evaluation. Results: Thirteen thermal injuries were created in the 9 animals. Six of 7 heat probe treatments and 1 of 6 multipolar probe treatments resulted in a stricture (p = 0.025, Fisher exact test). Applications of the heat probe at 10 or 15 J produced a stricture in 6 of 6 cases. All strictures were indistinguishable histopathologically from benign strictures in humans. Conclusions: The application of intraluminal thermal injury with a heat probe results in a reproducible animal model of benign biliary stenosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)73-77
Number of pages5
JournalGastrointestinal endoscopy
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Gastroenterology


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