Determination of Biopsy Yield That Optimally Detects Eosinophilic Gastritis and/or Duodenitis in a Randomized Trial of Lirentelimab

Evan S. Dellon, Nirmala Gonsalves, Marc E. Rothenberg, Ikuo Hirano, Mirna Chehade, Kathryn A. Peterson, Gary W. Falk, Joseph A. Murray, Lauren T. Gehman, Alan T. Chang, Bhupinder Singh, Henrik S. Rasmussen, Robert M. Genta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background & Aims: Eosinophilic gastritis (EG) and eosinophilic duodenitis (EoD), characterized by chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and increased numbers or activation of eosinophils and mast cells in the GI tract, are likely underdiagnosed. We aimed to determine rates of EG and EoD and number of biopsies required to optimize detection using screening data from a randomized trial of lirentelimab (AK002), an antibody against siglec-8 that depletes eosinophils and inhibits mast cells. We also characterized endoscopic features and symptoms of EG and EoD. Methods: Subjects with moderate-to-severe GI symptoms, assessed daily through a validated patient-reported outcome questionnaire, underwent endoscopy with a systematic gastric and duodenal biopsy protocol and histopathologic evaluation. EG diagnosis required presence of ≥30 eosinophils/high-power field (eos/hpf) in ≥5 hpfs and EoD required ≥30 eos/hpf in ≥3 hpfs. We analyzed diagnostic yields for EG and EoD and histologic, endoscopic, and clinical findings. Results: Of 88 subjects meeting symptom criteria, 72 were found to have EG and/or EoD (EG/EoD), including patients with no prior diagnosis of EG/EoD. We found that GI eosinophilia was patchy and that examination of multiple biopsies was required for diagnosis—an average of only 2.6 per 8 gastric biopsies and 2.2 per 4 duodenal biopsies per subject met thresholds for EG/EoD. Evaluation of multiple nonoverlapping hpfs in each of 8 gastric and 4 duodenal biopsies was required to capture 100% of EG/EoD cases. Neither endoscopic findings nor symptom severity correlated with eosinophil counts. Conclusions: In an analysis of patients with moderate-to-severe GI symptoms participating in a clinical trial of lirentelimab for EG/EoD, we found eosinophilia to be patchy in gastric and duodenal biopsies. Counting eosinophils in at least 8 gastric and 4 duodenal biopsies is required to identify patients with EG/EoD, so they can receive appropriate treatment. (ClinicalTrials.gov, Number: NCT03496571)

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • EGID
  • Eosinophilic Enteritis
  • Histology
  • Immune Cell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology

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