Background: Pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing has the potential to provide information on specific drug-metabolizing enzymes that may lead to an absence, reduction, or increase in medication effect in patients. There is a paucity of prospective studies examining PGx testing in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Research Aims: To (1) obtain a PGx panel in a sample of cardiovascular (CV) surgical patients with a planned ICU stay and identify phenotypes, and (2) identify PGx variants that may inform treatment regimens and may warrant prescribing adjustments. Design and Methods: Descriptive, single cohort cross-sectional design. Adult (≥18 years) CV patients with an anticipated postoperative ICU stay were enrolled from a large Midwestern tertiary academic medical center. Eligible patients provided informed consent at the time of their CV clinic appointment; PGx testing was then ordered. Pharmacogenomic testing consisted of the Focused Pharmacogenomics panel which included 10 genes and 55 medications. Results: Of the 272 patients screened, 100 (68% male) patients completed PGx testing (mean age 66.2 ± 9.6 years, mean Acute Physiology, Age and Chronic Health Evaluation III score 76.1 ± standard deviation). Pharmacogenomic results were available in the medical record within a median of 52.4 hours (interquartile range: 33.4-80.3). Pharmacogenomic testing results identified 5 CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, 26 CYP2C19 rapid metabolizers, 5 CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers, 6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, 5 CYP2D6 poor to intermediate metabolizers, and 2 CYP2D6 rapid metabolizers identified. Overall, 98% of patients had actionable or potentially actionable PGx results, including 82% for warfarin, 65% for propafenone, 65% for tramadol, 46% for oxycodone, 45% for metoprolol, 33% for clopidogrel, 32% for proton pump inhibitors, 25% for statins, and 12% for haloperidol. Conclusions: A significant portion of patients had identified genetic variants that may warrant changes in medication management during and after CV-ICU stay. It remains to be seen if PGx testing leads to improvements in ICU patient outcomes.
- cardiovascular surgery
- intensive care unit
- precision health care
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine