Little is known about the epidemiology of stress (takotsubo) cardiomyopathy (SC). We used a 3-arm case-control study to assess differences in demographic and co-morbid predictors of SC compared to orthopedic controls and myocardial infarction (MI) controls to characterize (1) population-level predictors of SC generally and (2) differences and similarities in determinants of SC compared to MI. We included data on all discharges of patients diagnosed with SC from the 2008 to 2009 National Inpatient Samples and randomly selected 1-to-1 age-matched controls from patients hospitalized with MI and patients hospitalized with joint injuries after trauma. We used McNemar tests to assess differences in demographic characteristics and co-morbidities between patients with SC and controls. There were 24,701 patients with SC in our study. Of patients with SC, 89.0% were women compared to 38.9% of patients with MI and 55.7% of orthopedic controls. Patients with SC were more likely to be white and to reside in wealthier ZIP codes compared to MI and orthopedic controls. Patients with SC were less likely to have cardiovascular risk factors compared to MI and orthopedic controls but were more likely to have had histories of cerebrovascular accidents, drug abuse, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, malignancy, chronic liver disease, and sepsis. In conclusion, demographic and co-morbid predictors of SC differ substantially from those of MI and may be of interest to providers when diagnosing SC. Several co-morbid risk factors predictive of SC may operate by increased catecholamines.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine