Deep Learning Artificial Intelligence Model for Assessment of Hip Dislocation Risk Following Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty From Postoperative Radiographs

Pouria Rouzrokh, Taghi Ramazanian, Cody C. Wyles, Kenneth A. Philbrick, Jason C. Cai, Michael J. Taunton, Hilal Maradit Kremers, David G. Lewallen, Bradley J. Erickson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Dislocation is a common complication following total hip arthroplasty (THA), and accounts for a high percentage of subsequent revisions. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the potential of a convolutional neural network model to assess the risk of hip dislocation based on postoperative anteroposterior pelvis radiographs. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated radiographs for a cohort of 13,970 primary THAs with 374 dislocations over 5 years of follow-up. Overall, 1490 radiographs from dislocated and 91,094 from non-dislocated THAs were included in the analysis. A convolutional neural network object detection model (YOLO-V3) was trained to crop the images by centering on the femoral head. A ResNet18 classifier was trained to predict subsequent hip dislocation from the cropped imaging. The ResNet18 classifier was initialized with ImageNet weights and trained using FastAI (V1.0) running on PyTorch. The training was run for 15 epochs using 10-fold cross validation, data oversampling, and augmentation. Results: The hip dislocation classifier achieved the following mean performance (standard deviation): accuracy = 49.5 (4.1%), sensitivity = 89.0 (2.2%), specificity = 48.8 (4.2%), positive predictive value = 3.3 (0.3%), negative predictive value = 99.5 (0.1%), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 76.7 (3.6%). Saliency maps demonstrated that the model placed the greatest emphasis on the femoral head and acetabular component. Conclusion: Existing prediction methods fail to identify patients at high risk of dislocation following THA. Our radiographic classifier model has high sensitivity and negative predictive value, and can be combined with clinical risk factor information for rapid assessment of risk for dislocation following THA. The model further suggests radiographic locations which may be important in understanding the etiology of prosthesis dislocation. Importantly, our model is an illustration of the potential of automated imaging artificial intelligence models in orthopedics. Level of Evidence: Level III.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Arthroplasty
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • artificial intelligence
  • convolutional neural network
  • deep learning
  • dislocation
  • total hip arthroplasty
  • total hip replacement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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