Vaccination therapy of AD animal models and patients strongly suggests an active role of brain mononuclear phagocytes in immune-mediated clearance of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) in brain. Although Aβ uptake by macrophages can be regulated by pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, their effects on macrophage-mediated Aβ degradation are poorly understood. To better understand this mechanism of degradation, we examined whether pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines affect the degradation of Aβ using primary cultured human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) and microglia using pulse-chase analysis of fibrillar and oligomer 125I-Aβ40 and Aβ42. Initial uptake of fibrillar Aβ40 and Aβ42 was 40% and its degradation was saturated by 120 h in both MDM and microglia, compared with an initial uptake of oligomeric Aβless than 0.5% and saturation of degradation within 24 h. IFN-γ increased the intracellular retention of fibrillar Aβ40 and Aβ42 by inhibiting degradation, whereas IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β1, but not IL-13 and IL-27, enhanced degradation. Fibrillar Aβ degradation in MDM is sensitive to lysosomal and insulin degrading enzyme inhibitors but insensitive to proteasomal and neprilysin inhibitors. IFN-γ and TNF-α directly reduced the expression of insulin degrading enzyme and chaperone molecules (heat shock protein 70 and heat shock cognate protein 70), which are involved in refolding of aggregated proteins. Coculture of MDM with activated, but not naive T cells, suppressed Aβ degradation in MDM, which was partially blocked by a combination of neutralizing Abs against proinflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that proinflammatory cytokines suppress Aβ degradation in MDM, whereas select anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines antagonize these effects.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy