Cyclotron production of 68 Ga in a liquid target

Effects of solution composition and irradiation parameters

Mukesh Pandey, John F. Byrne, Katherine N. Schlasner, Nicholas R. Schmit, Timothy R DeGrado

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives: To optimize 68 Ga production using a liquid cyclotron target, investigations were performed to compare production yields using different concentrations of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 , nitric acid, and irradiation parameters. Methods: Different concentrations of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (0.6 M, 1.2 M and 1.42 M)in varying normality of nitric acid (0.8–1.5 N)were prepared and irradiated with protons (incident energy ~14 MeV)using a BMLT-2 liquid target at different beam currents (30–50 μA)and irradiation times (30–60 min). The 68 Ga production and saturation yields were calculated and compared. [ 68 Ga]GaCl 3 was isolated using in-house developed hydroxamate resin and optimized for routine application. Recycling of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 from the recovered target solution was also investigated. Results: On increasing concentration of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 from 0.6 M to 1.2 M in 0.8 N nitric acid, decay corrected yield of 68 Ga at EOB was found to be 1.64 GBq (44.4 mCi)and 3.37 GBq (91.0 mCi), respectively at 30 μA beam current, indicating production yield was proportional to zinc nitrate concentration for a 30 min irradiation. However, when beam current was increased to 40 μA while maintaining nitric acid concentration at 0.8 N, the proportional relationship of 68 Zn-concentration with 68 Ga production yield was lost [0.6 M, 2.29 GBq (61.9 mCi); 1.2 M, 3.6 GBq (97.3 mCi)]for a 30 min irradiation. In fact, the effect was more profound for 60 min irradiations [0.6 M, 2.96 GBq (80.0 mCi); 1.2 M, 4.25 GBq (115 mCi)]. Increasing nitric acid concentration to 1.25–1.5 N improved 68 Ga production yield for 40 μA, 60-min irradiations (1.2 M; 5.17 GBq (140 mCi)). MP-AES analysis showed metal impurities as <0.20 μg Ga (n = 3), <0.93 μg Zn (n = 3)and < 2.7 μg Fe (n = 3). Based on above finding, 1.42 M [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 in 1.2 N-HNO 3 solutions were also studied to achieve highest production yields of 9.85 ± 2.09 GBq (266 ± 57 mCi)for 60 min irradiation at 40 μA beam current. After recycling,> 99% pure recycled [ 68 Zn]zinc nitrate was obtained in 82.6 ± 13.6% yield. Conclusions: 68 Ga production yields were dependent on all four variables: concentrations of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 and nitric acid, beam current and duration of irradiation. Of note, increasing beam current and irradiation time may require increased concentrations of nitric acid to achieve expected increments in 68 Ga production yield.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalNuclear Medicine and Biology
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Cyclotrons
Nitric Acid
Recycling
Protons
Metals

Keywords

  • Ga
  • Cyclotron targetry
  • Effect of solution composition
  • Solution target

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Cyclotron production of 68 Ga in a liquid target : Effects of solution composition and irradiation parameters. / Pandey, Mukesh; Byrne, John F.; Schlasner, Katherine N.; Schmit, Nicholas R.; DeGrado, Timothy R.

In: Nuclear Medicine and Biology, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{c717682f9df5447e936895ab3610d31b,
title = "Cyclotron production of 68 Ga in a liquid target: Effects of solution composition and irradiation parameters",
abstract = "Objectives: To optimize 68 Ga production using a liquid cyclotron target, investigations were performed to compare production yields using different concentrations of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 , nitric acid, and irradiation parameters. Methods: Different concentrations of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (0.6 M, 1.2 M and 1.42 M)in varying normality of nitric acid (0.8–1.5 N)were prepared and irradiated with protons (incident energy ~14 MeV)using a BMLT-2 liquid target at different beam currents (30–50 μA)and irradiation times (30–60 min). The 68 Ga production and saturation yields were calculated and compared. [ 68 Ga]GaCl 3 was isolated using in-house developed hydroxamate resin and optimized for routine application. Recycling of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 from the recovered target solution was also investigated. Results: On increasing concentration of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 from 0.6 M to 1.2 M in 0.8 N nitric acid, decay corrected yield of 68 Ga at EOB was found to be 1.64 GBq (44.4 mCi)and 3.37 GBq (91.0 mCi), respectively at 30 μA beam current, indicating production yield was proportional to zinc nitrate concentration for a 30 min irradiation. However, when beam current was increased to 40 μA while maintaining nitric acid concentration at 0.8 N, the proportional relationship of 68 Zn-concentration with 68 Ga production yield was lost [0.6 M, 2.29 GBq (61.9 mCi); 1.2 M, 3.6 GBq (97.3 mCi)]for a 30 min irradiation. In fact, the effect was more profound for 60 min irradiations [0.6 M, 2.96 GBq (80.0 mCi); 1.2 M, 4.25 GBq (115 mCi)]. Increasing nitric acid concentration to 1.25–1.5 N improved 68 Ga production yield for 40 μA, 60-min irradiations (1.2 M; 5.17 GBq (140 mCi)). MP-AES analysis showed metal impurities as <0.20 μg Ga (n = 3), <0.93 μg Zn (n = 3)and < 2.7 μg Fe (n = 3). Based on above finding, 1.42 M [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 in 1.2 N-HNO 3 solutions were also studied to achieve highest production yields of 9.85 ± 2.09 GBq (266 ± 57 mCi)for 60 min irradiation at 40 μA beam current. After recycling,> 99{\%} pure recycled [ 68 Zn]zinc nitrate was obtained in 82.6 ± 13.6{\%} yield. Conclusions: 68 Ga production yields were dependent on all four variables: concentrations of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 and nitric acid, beam current and duration of irradiation. Of note, increasing beam current and irradiation time may require increased concentrations of nitric acid to achieve expected increments in 68 Ga production yield.",
keywords = "Ga, Cyclotron targetry, Effect of solution composition, Solution target",
author = "Mukesh Pandey and Byrne, {John F.} and Schlasner, {Katherine N.} and Schmit, {Nicholas R.} and DeGrado, {Timothy R}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2019.03.002",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "International journal of radiation applications and instrumentation. Part B, Nuclear medicine and biology",
issn = "0969-8051",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cyclotron production of 68 Ga in a liquid target

T2 - Effects of solution composition and irradiation parameters

AU - Pandey, Mukesh

AU - Byrne, John F.

AU - Schlasner, Katherine N.

AU - Schmit, Nicholas R.

AU - DeGrado, Timothy R

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Objectives: To optimize 68 Ga production using a liquid cyclotron target, investigations were performed to compare production yields using different concentrations of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 , nitric acid, and irradiation parameters. Methods: Different concentrations of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (0.6 M, 1.2 M and 1.42 M)in varying normality of nitric acid (0.8–1.5 N)were prepared and irradiated with protons (incident energy ~14 MeV)using a BMLT-2 liquid target at different beam currents (30–50 μA)and irradiation times (30–60 min). The 68 Ga production and saturation yields were calculated and compared. [ 68 Ga]GaCl 3 was isolated using in-house developed hydroxamate resin and optimized for routine application. Recycling of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 from the recovered target solution was also investigated. Results: On increasing concentration of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 from 0.6 M to 1.2 M in 0.8 N nitric acid, decay corrected yield of 68 Ga at EOB was found to be 1.64 GBq (44.4 mCi)and 3.37 GBq (91.0 mCi), respectively at 30 μA beam current, indicating production yield was proportional to zinc nitrate concentration for a 30 min irradiation. However, when beam current was increased to 40 μA while maintaining nitric acid concentration at 0.8 N, the proportional relationship of 68 Zn-concentration with 68 Ga production yield was lost [0.6 M, 2.29 GBq (61.9 mCi); 1.2 M, 3.6 GBq (97.3 mCi)]for a 30 min irradiation. In fact, the effect was more profound for 60 min irradiations [0.6 M, 2.96 GBq (80.0 mCi); 1.2 M, 4.25 GBq (115 mCi)]. Increasing nitric acid concentration to 1.25–1.5 N improved 68 Ga production yield for 40 μA, 60-min irradiations (1.2 M; 5.17 GBq (140 mCi)). MP-AES analysis showed metal impurities as <0.20 μg Ga (n = 3), <0.93 μg Zn (n = 3)and < 2.7 μg Fe (n = 3). Based on above finding, 1.42 M [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 in 1.2 N-HNO 3 solutions were also studied to achieve highest production yields of 9.85 ± 2.09 GBq (266 ± 57 mCi)for 60 min irradiation at 40 μA beam current. After recycling,> 99% pure recycled [ 68 Zn]zinc nitrate was obtained in 82.6 ± 13.6% yield. Conclusions: 68 Ga production yields were dependent on all four variables: concentrations of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 and nitric acid, beam current and duration of irradiation. Of note, increasing beam current and irradiation time may require increased concentrations of nitric acid to achieve expected increments in 68 Ga production yield.

AB - Objectives: To optimize 68 Ga production using a liquid cyclotron target, investigations were performed to compare production yields using different concentrations of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 , nitric acid, and irradiation parameters. Methods: Different concentrations of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (0.6 M, 1.2 M and 1.42 M)in varying normality of nitric acid (0.8–1.5 N)were prepared and irradiated with protons (incident energy ~14 MeV)using a BMLT-2 liquid target at different beam currents (30–50 μA)and irradiation times (30–60 min). The 68 Ga production and saturation yields were calculated and compared. [ 68 Ga]GaCl 3 was isolated using in-house developed hydroxamate resin and optimized for routine application. Recycling of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 from the recovered target solution was also investigated. Results: On increasing concentration of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 from 0.6 M to 1.2 M in 0.8 N nitric acid, decay corrected yield of 68 Ga at EOB was found to be 1.64 GBq (44.4 mCi)and 3.37 GBq (91.0 mCi), respectively at 30 μA beam current, indicating production yield was proportional to zinc nitrate concentration for a 30 min irradiation. However, when beam current was increased to 40 μA while maintaining nitric acid concentration at 0.8 N, the proportional relationship of 68 Zn-concentration with 68 Ga production yield was lost [0.6 M, 2.29 GBq (61.9 mCi); 1.2 M, 3.6 GBq (97.3 mCi)]for a 30 min irradiation. In fact, the effect was more profound for 60 min irradiations [0.6 M, 2.96 GBq (80.0 mCi); 1.2 M, 4.25 GBq (115 mCi)]. Increasing nitric acid concentration to 1.25–1.5 N improved 68 Ga production yield for 40 μA, 60-min irradiations (1.2 M; 5.17 GBq (140 mCi)). MP-AES analysis showed metal impurities as <0.20 μg Ga (n = 3), <0.93 μg Zn (n = 3)and < 2.7 μg Fe (n = 3). Based on above finding, 1.42 M [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 in 1.2 N-HNO 3 solutions were also studied to achieve highest production yields of 9.85 ± 2.09 GBq (266 ± 57 mCi)for 60 min irradiation at 40 μA beam current. After recycling,> 99% pure recycled [ 68 Zn]zinc nitrate was obtained in 82.6 ± 13.6% yield. Conclusions: 68 Ga production yields were dependent on all four variables: concentrations of [ 68 Zn]Zn(NO 3 ) 2 and nitric acid, beam current and duration of irradiation. Of note, increasing beam current and irradiation time may require increased concentrations of nitric acid to achieve expected increments in 68 Ga production yield.

KW - Ga

KW - Cyclotron targetry

KW - Effect of solution composition

KW - Solution target

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