Recognition of key concepts of structural and functional anatomy of the cerebellum can facilitate image interpretation and clinical correlation. Recently, the human brain mapping literature has increased our understanding of cerebellar anatomy, function, connectivity with the cerebrum, and significance of lesions involving specific areas. Both the common names and numerically based Schmahmann classifications of cerebellar lobules are illustrated. Anatomic patterns, or signs, of key fissures and white matter branching are introduced to facilitate easy recognition of the major anatomic features. Color-coded overlays of cross-sectional imaging are provided for reference of more complex detail. Examples of exquisite detail of structural and functional cerebellar anatomy at 7 T MRI are also depicted. The functions of the cerebellum are manifold with the majority of areas involved with non-motor association function. Key concepts of lesion-symptom mapping which correlates lesion location to clinical manifestation are introduced, emphasizing that lesions in most areas of the cerebellum are associated with predominantly non-motor deficits. Clinical correlation is reinforced with examples of intrinsic pathologic derangement of cerebellar anatomy and altered functional connectivity due to pathology of the cerebral hemisphere. The purpose of this pictorial review is to illustrate basic concepts of these topics in a cross-sectional imaging-based format that can be easily understood and applied by radiologists.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging