Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to evaluate if CT pixel distribution and texture analysis can identify fat in angiomyolipoma (AML) on unenhanced CT. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with 38 AMLs and 75 patients with 83 renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) were evaluated. Region of interest (ROI) was manually placed over renal mass on unenhanced CT. In-house software generated multiple overlapping small-ROIs of various sizes within whole-lesion-ROI. Maximal number of pixels under cutoff attenuation values in the multiple small-ROIs was calculated. Skewness of CT attenuation histogram was calculated from whole-lesion-ROI. Presence of fat in renal mass was also evaluated subjectively. Performance of subjective evaluation and objective methods for identifying fat was compared using McNemar test. Results: Macroscopic fat was identified in 15/38 AMLs and 1/83 RCCs by both subjective evaluation and by CT negative pixel distribution analysis (p = 1.0). Optimal threshold was ≥6 pixels below −30 HU within 13-pixel-ROI. Skewness of < −0.4 in whole-lesion-ROI identified fat in 10/38 AMLs and 0/83 RCCs. By combining CT negative pixel distribution analysis and skewness, fat was identified in 20/38 AMLs and 1/83 RCCs, but the difference to the subjective method was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). Conclusion: CT negative attenuation pixel distribution analysis does not identify fat in AML beyond subjective evaluation. Addition of skewness by texture analysis may help improve identifying fat in AML.
- Computed tomography
- Renal cell carcinoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology