Correlates of overweight and obesity in 644 patients with bipolar disorder

Susan L. McElroy, Mark A Frye, Trisha Suppes, Dawn Dhavale, Paul E. Keck, Gabriele S. Leverich, Lori Altshuler, Kirk D. Denicoff, Willem A. Nolen, Ralph Kupka, Heinz Grunze, Jörg Walden, Robert M. Post

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

282 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Overweight and obesity are common clinical problems encountered in the treatment of bipolar disorder. We therefore assessed the prevalence and clinical correlates of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity in 644 bipolar patients. Method: 644 outpatients with DSM-IV bipolar disorder in the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Treatment Outcomes Network were evaluated with structured diagnostic interviews and clinician- and self-administered questionnaires to determine bipolar disorder diagnoses, demographic and historical illness characteristics, comorbid Axis I diagnoses, medical histories, health habits, and body mass indices (BMIs). Results: Fifty-eight percent of the patients with bipolar disorder were overweight, 21% were obese, and 5% were extremely obese. American patients had significantly higher mean (p < .0001) BMIs and significantly higher rates of obesity (p < .001) and extreme obesity (p < .001) than European patients. Significant associations (p ≤ .001) were found between overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity and gender, age, income level, comorbid binge-eating disorder, hypertension, arthritis, diabetes mellitus, exercise habits, and coffee consumption. Current BMI and weight were each correlated with the number of weight gain-associated psychotropics to which patients had been exposed. Multinomial logistic regression (adjusted for site and eating disorder diagnosis and corrected for multiple comparisons) showed that (1) overweight was significantly associated with male gender and hypertension (p < .001), (2) obesity was significantly associated with hypertension (p < .001), and (3) extreme obesity was significantly associated with hypertension and arthritis (p < .001). Conclusion: Overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity were common in this group of bipolar patients, although it was unclear that their prevalence rates were truly elevated, because overweight and obesity are increasingly common public health problems among the general population. Correlates of overweight and obesity in bipolar disorder include patient and treatment variables such as gender, geographical location, comorbid binge-eating disorder, age, income level, degree of exposure to weight gain-associated psychotropics, medical disorders associated with obesity, and health habits.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)207-213
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Psychiatry
Volume63
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes

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Bipolar Disorder
Obesity
Binge-Eating Disorder
Hypertension
Habits
Body Mass Index
Weight Gain
Arthritis
Coffee
Health
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Diabetes Mellitus
Outpatients
Public Health
Logistic Models
Demography
Interviews
Exercise

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology

Cite this

McElroy, S. L., Frye, M. A., Suppes, T., Dhavale, D., Keck, P. E., Leverich, G. S., ... Post, R. M. (2002). Correlates of overweight and obesity in 644 patients with bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63(3), 207-213.

Correlates of overweight and obesity in 644 patients with bipolar disorder. / McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A; Suppes, Trisha; Dhavale, Dawn; Keck, Paul E.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Altshuler, Lori; Denicoff, Kirk D.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Grunze, Heinz; Walden, Jörg; Post, Robert M.

In: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol. 63, No. 3, 2002, p. 207-213.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

McElroy, SL, Frye, MA, Suppes, T, Dhavale, D, Keck, PE, Leverich, GS, Altshuler, L, Denicoff, KD, Nolen, WA, Kupka, R, Grunze, H, Walden, J & Post, RM 2002, 'Correlates of overweight and obesity in 644 patients with bipolar disorder', Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 207-213.
McElroy SL, Frye MA, Suppes T, Dhavale D, Keck PE, Leverich GS et al. Correlates of overweight and obesity in 644 patients with bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2002;63(3):207-213.
McElroy, Susan L. ; Frye, Mark A ; Suppes, Trisha ; Dhavale, Dawn ; Keck, Paul E. ; Leverich, Gabriele S. ; Altshuler, Lori ; Denicoff, Kirk D. ; Nolen, Willem A. ; Kupka, Ralph ; Grunze, Heinz ; Walden, Jörg ; Post, Robert M. / Correlates of overweight and obesity in 644 patients with bipolar disorder. In: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2002 ; Vol. 63, No. 3. pp. 207-213.
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AU - Suppes, Trisha

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AU - Keck, Paul E.

AU - Leverich, Gabriele S.

AU - Altshuler, Lori

AU - Denicoff, Kirk D.

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N2 - Objective: Overweight and obesity are common clinical problems encountered in the treatment of bipolar disorder. We therefore assessed the prevalence and clinical correlates of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity in 644 bipolar patients. Method: 644 outpatients with DSM-IV bipolar disorder in the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Treatment Outcomes Network were evaluated with structured diagnostic interviews and clinician- and self-administered questionnaires to determine bipolar disorder diagnoses, demographic and historical illness characteristics, comorbid Axis I diagnoses, medical histories, health habits, and body mass indices (BMIs). Results: Fifty-eight percent of the patients with bipolar disorder were overweight, 21% were obese, and 5% were extremely obese. American patients had significantly higher mean (p < .0001) BMIs and significantly higher rates of obesity (p < .001) and extreme obesity (p < .001) than European patients. Significant associations (p ≤ .001) were found between overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity and gender, age, income level, comorbid binge-eating disorder, hypertension, arthritis, diabetes mellitus, exercise habits, and coffee consumption. Current BMI and weight were each correlated with the number of weight gain-associated psychotropics to which patients had been exposed. Multinomial logistic regression (adjusted for site and eating disorder diagnosis and corrected for multiple comparisons) showed that (1) overweight was significantly associated with male gender and hypertension (p < .001), (2) obesity was significantly associated with hypertension (p < .001), and (3) extreme obesity was significantly associated with hypertension and arthritis (p < .001). Conclusion: Overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity were common in this group of bipolar patients, although it was unclear that their prevalence rates were truly elevated, because overweight and obesity are increasingly common public health problems among the general population. Correlates of overweight and obesity in bipolar disorder include patient and treatment variables such as gender, geographical location, comorbid binge-eating disorder, age, income level, degree of exposure to weight gain-associated psychotropics, medical disorders associated with obesity, and health habits.

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