OBJECTIVE: To determine whether seizure onset zone (SOZ) can be localized accurately prior to surgical planning in patients with focal epilepsy, we performed noninvasive EEG recordings and source localization analyses on 39 patients. METHODS: In 39 patients with focal epilepsy, we recorded and extracted 138 seizures and 1,325 interictal epileptic discharges using high-density EEG. We investigated a novel approach for directly imaging sources of seizures and interictal spikes from high-density EEG recordings, and rigorously validated it for noninvasive localization of SOZ determined from intracranial EEG findings and surgical resection volume. Conventional source imaging analyses were also performed for comparison. RESULTS: Ictal source imaging showed a concordance rate of 95% when compared to intracranial EEG or resection results. The average distance from estimation to seizure onset (intracranial) electrodes is 1.35 cm in patients with concordant results, and 0.74 cm to surgical resection boundary in patients with successful surgery. About 41% of the patients were found to have multiple types of interictal activities; coincidentally, a lower concordance rate and a significantly worse performance in localizing SOZ were observed in these patients. CONCLUSION: Noninvasive ictal source imaging with high-density EEG recording can provide highly concordant results with clinical decisions obtained by invasive monitoring or confirmed by resective surgery. By means of direct seizure imaging using high-density scalp EEG recordings, the added value of ictal source imaging is particularly high in patients with complex interictal activity patterns, who may represent the most challenging cases with poor prognosis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology