Congenital Long QT Syndrome

Andrew D. Krahn, Zachary Laksman, Raymond W. Sy, Pieter G. Postema, Michael J. Ackerman, Arthur A.M. Wilde, Hui Chen Han

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) encompasses a group of heritable conditions that are associated with cardiac repolarization dysfunction. Since its initial description in 1957, our understanding of LQTS has increased dramatically. The prevalence of LQTS is estimated to be ∼1:2,000, with a slight female predominance. The diagnosis of LQTS is based on clinical, electrocardiogram, and genetic factors. Risk stratification of patients with LQTS aims to identify those who are at increased risk of cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death. Factors including age, sex, QTc interval, and genetic background all contribute to current risk stratification paradigms. The management of LQTS involves conservative measures such as the avoidance of QT-prolonging drugs, pharmacologic measures with nonselective β-blockers, and interventional approaches such as device therapy or left cardiac sympathetic denervation. In general, most forms of exercise are considered safe in adequately treated patients, and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy is reserved for those at the highest risk. This review summarizes our current understanding of LQTS and provides clinicians with a practical approach to diagnosis and management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)687-706
Number of pages20
JournalJACC: Clinical Electrophysiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022


  • arrhythmia
  • inherited
  • sudden death

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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