Compressed ultrasound video image quality evaluation using a Likert scale and Kappa statistical analysis

Brent K. Stewart, Stephen J. Carter, Steve G. Langer, Rex K. Andrew

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

Abstract

Experiments using NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite were conducted to provide an estimate of the compressed video quality required for preservation of clinically relevant features for the detection of trauma. Bandwidth rates of 128, 256 and 384 kbps were used. A five point Likert scale (1=no useful information and 5=good diagnostic quality) was used for a subjective preference questionnaire to evaluate the quality of the compressed ultrasound imagery at the three compression rates for several anatomical regions of interest. At 384 kbps the Likert scores (mean +/- SD) were abdomen (4.45 +/- 0.71), carotid artery (4.70 +/- 0.36), kidney (5.0 +/- 0.0), liver (4.67 +/- 0.58) and thyroid (4.03 +/- 0.74). Due to the volatile nature of the H.320 compressed digital video stream, no statistically significant results can be derived through this methodology. As the MPEG standard has at its roots many of the same intraframe and motion vector compression algorithms as the H.261 (such as that used in the previous ACTS/AMT experiments), we are using the MPEG compressed video sequences to best gauge what minimum bandwidths are necessary for preservation of clinically relevant features for the detection of trauma. We have been using an MPEG codec board to collect losslessly compressed video clips from high quality S-VHS tapes and through direct digitization of S-video. Due to the large number of videoclips and questions to be presented to the radiologists and for ease of application, we have developed a web browser interface for this video visual perception study. Due to the large numbers of observations required to reach statistical significance in most ROC studies, Kappa statistical analysis is used to analyze the degree of agreement between observers and between viewing assessment. If the degree of agreement amongst readers is high, then there is a possibility that the ratings (i.e., average Likert score at each bandwidth) do in fact reflect the dimension they are purported to reflect (video quality versus bandwidth). It is then possible to make intelligent choice of bandwidth for streaming compressed video and compressed videoclips.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)365-377
Number of pages13
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Volume3335
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 1998
EventMedical Imaging 1998: Image Display - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 22 1998Feb 24 1998

Keywords

  • Image Compression
  • Image Quality
  • Kappa Statistics
  • Likert Scale
  • Medical Images
  • Telemedicine
  • Teleradiology
  • Ultrasound
  • Video Compression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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