Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are responsible for only 1-2% of all strokes and 4% of primary intracerebral hemorrhages. However, patients with intracranial hemorrhage from an AVM are usually younger than most stroke victims and AVMs are responsible for one-third of intracranial hemorrhages in young adults . The incidence of hemorrhage as a presenting symptom of an intracranial AVM varies among different series in relation to the time period considered (before or after the widespread availability of non-invasive imaging studies) and the type of setting: Population-based study versus series of patients referred for tertiary specialized care. In a small retrospective but population-based study conducted between 1965 and 1992 in Olmsted County, 65% of patients with AVMs presented with hemorrhage . With advances in imaging techniques and widespread availability of non-invasive imaging studies, the relative percentage of patients with AVMs presenting with hemorrhage is decreasing. In a prospective population-based study conducted in Scotland, 114 of 229 adults (50%) diagnosed with an intracranial parenchymal AVM between 1999 and 2003 suffered an intracranial hemorrhage as a presenting symptom . Parenchymal hemorrhage is the most common mode of hemorrhagic presentation. In the Scottish Intracranial Vascular Malformations Study , 50% of the hemorrhages were strictly limited to the brain parenchyma and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) was present in 34%. Similarly in the study conducted in Olmsted County, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was present in 41% of patients, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 24%, IVH in 12%, and a combination of the different types in 23% . In the Scottish study, location of the hematoma was lobar in 73%, deep in 11%, and infratentorial in 16% . The median volume in 90 patients with ICH was 16 cm3 , and IVH was present in 34%.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Comprehensive Management of Arteriovenous Malformations of the Brain and Spine|
|Publisher||Cambridge University Press|
|Number of pages||7|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2015|
ASJC Scopus subject areas