OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to prospectively compare the size of invasive breast cancer before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) at breast MRI and molecular breast imaging (MBI) and to assess the accuracy of post-NAC MBI and MRI relative to pathologic analysis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Women with invasive breast cancer greater than or equal to 1.5 cm were enrolled to compare the longest dimension before and after NAC at MRI and MBI. MBI was performed on a dual-detector cadmium zinc telluride system after administration of 6.5 mCi (240 MBq) 99mTc-sestamibi. The accuracy of MRI and MBI in assessing residual disease (invasive disease or ductal carcinoma in situ) was determined relative to pathologic examination. RESULTS. The longest dimension at MRI was within 1.0 cm of that at MBI in 72.3% of cases before NAC and 70.1% of cases after NAC. The difference between the longest dimension at imaging after NAC and pathologic tumor size was within 1 cm for 58.7% of breast MRI cases and 59.6% of MBI cases. Ninety patients underwent both MRI and MBI after NAC. In the 56 patients with invasive residual disease, 10 (17.9%) cases were negative at MRI and 23 (41.1%) cases were negative at MBI. In the 34 patients with breast pathologic complete response, there was enhancement in 10 cases (29.4%) at MRI and uptake in six cases (17.6%) at MBI. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value after NAC were 82.8%, 69.4%, 81.4%, and 71.4%, respectively, for MRI and 58.9%, 82.4%, 84.6%, and 54.9%, respectively, for MBI. CONCLUSION. Breast MRI and MBI showed similar disease extent before NAC. MBI may be an alternative to breast MRI in patients with a contraindication to breast MRI. Neither modality showed sufficient accuracy after NAC in predicting breast pathologic complete response to obviate tissue diagnosis to assess for residual invasive disease. Defining the extent of residual disease compared with pathologic evaluation was also limited after NAC for both breast MRI and MBI.
- Breast cancer
- Molecular breast imaging
- Neoadjuvant chemotherapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging