Previous studies have differed on the independent effect of age and gender to left ventricular (LV) mass. Data on ventricular remodeling in hypertensive patients ≥65 years of age is lacking. Similarly, the systolic and diastolic interaction in older hypertensives is not well defined. In a prospective study, we examined the relation of LV mass, relative wall thickness, and systolic and diastolic interaction in 508 hypertensive patients between 50 and 80 years of age who were divided according to age (<65 and ≥65 years) and gender. LV mass, geometric classification, systolic wall stress, and Doppler filling were obtained according to standard Doppler echocardiographic criteria. In men, most measurements were similarly distributed. However, women ≥65 years of age had smaller LV systolic dimensions, thicker ventricular septums, higher endocardial and midwall fractional shortenings, and lower end-systolic wall stress. Although LV mass was higher in men, there was no age difference within the same sex. The most common LV geometric remodeling was increased rela-five wall thickness in the form of concentric hypertrophy or concentric remodeled. The predominant mitral flow pattern was "impaired relaxation"; however, older patients had even shorter E waves, taller A waves, and lower E/A ratios. Thus, patients ≥65 years of age had an even higher prevalence of this pattern (men, 89% vs 73%, p < 0.001, and women, 91% vs 77%, p < 0.001). Delayed LV relaxation with preservation of systolic ejection indexes is an early abnormality in essential hypertension, which lasts an undetermined rime with further progression as patients aged. As a result, hypertensive patients ≥65 years of age had the most pronounced structural and functional changes, an observation particularly noted in women. In those ≥65 years, data from the Doppler E wave and A wave do not distinguish the physiologic process of aging from the pathologic changes of pressure overload.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine