Objectives: This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based on a combination of body mass index (BMI) and measures of central obesity. Background: In CAD patients, mortality has been reported to vary inversely with BMI ("obesity paradox"). In contrast, central obesity is directly associated with mortality. Because of this bi-directional relationship, we hypothesized that CAD patients with normal BMI but with central obesity would have worse survival compared with subjects with other combinations of BMI and central adiposity. Methods: We included 15,547 participants with CAD who took part in 5 studies from 3 continents. Multivariate stratified Cox-proportional hazard models that adjusted for potential confounders were used to assess mortality risk according to different patterns of adiposity that combined BMI with measures of central obesity. Results: Mean age was 66 years; 55% were men. There were 4,699 deaths over a median follow-up of 4.7 years. Subjects with normal weight but central obesity had the worst long-term survival: a person with BMI of 22 kg/m2 and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 0.98 had higher mortality than a person with similar BMI but WHR of 0.89 (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 1.17); than a person with BMI of 26 kg/m2 and WHR of 0.89 (HR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.31), than in a person with BMI of 30 kg/m2 and WHR of 0.89 (HR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.39 to 1.86), and than a person with BMI of 30 kg/m 2 and WHR of 0.98 (HR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.39) (p < 0.0001 for all). Conclusions: In patients with CAD, normal weight with central obesity was associated with the highest risk of mortality.
- coronary artery disease
- waist circumference
- waist-to-hip ratio
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine