Objectives: Retrospective pooled analysis of data from published prospective studies and randomized phase 1 and 2 trials was done to assess efficacy and safety profile of intravenous combination therapy [glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)] in management of acute ischemic stroke.Materials and Methods: We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE databases; two reviewers independently selected studies reporting safety endpoints and outcome measures in acute ischemic stroke patients treated with combination therapy. tPA arm of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) tPA trial was included in tPA-only group. Weighted means and proportions were calculated for numeric and categorical variables respectively. Bivariate analysis using Fisher's exact test was done to compare baseline descriptors, safety endpoints, and outcome measures.Results: Combination therapy arm included 188 patients and IV tPA arm had 218 patients. Mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) in two groups were 12.8 and 14.6, respectively. Mean time-to-treatment was 2.3 hours in combination therapy arm and 2.55 hours in tPA arm. Treatment with combination therapy was associated with significant reduction in rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) [odds ratio (OR) 0.26, 95% cumulative incidence (CI) 0.07 0.83, P value 0.01). Difference in better functional outcome at 90 days (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.59-1.30, P value 0.54) and death at 90 days (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.69-1.93, P value 0.60) were not significantly different in two groups.Conclusion: Combination of low dose IV TPA with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors is associated with reduction in sICH rates in patients with acute ischemic stroke as compared to standard dose of IV tPA.
- Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors
- Tissue plasminogen activator
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology