The objective of this review is to examine advances in the development of combination therapies for the treatment of obesity beyond diet or lifestyle interventions. Experimental combination pharmacotherapies include combinations of pramlintide and phentermine as well as amylin and bupropion-naltrexone. Incretin and pancreatic hormones generally inhibit upper gastrointestinal motor functions, and combinations showing efficacy in obesity are coadministration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) with glucagon, a unimolecular dual incretin of PEGylated GLP-1/GIP coagonist, the combination of GLP-1 and PYY3-36, and, in proof of concept studies, combined infusions of GLP-1, peptide YY, and oxyntomodulin. Among bariatric procedures, repeat intragastric balloon (IGB) treatments are more efficacious than IGB plus diet, and endoscopic intervention can enhance the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass when weight regain occurs. A first trial has provided promising results with combination of IGB plus the GLP-1 analog, liraglutide, compared to the balloon alone. Thus, combination therapies for the treatment of obesity hold promise for introduction into clinical practice.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism