Combination Immunotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Where Are We Currently?

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The past decade has seen a rise in the availability of breakthrough therapeutic strategies for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A tumor microenvironment in HCC is regulated by various immunotolerance mechanisms; therefore, therapeutic strategies aiming at disrupting tumor immune tolerance are becoming attractive curative options in HCC. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated impressive effectiveness in HCC, including in sorafenib-unresponsive patients. Synergistic approaches with checkpoint inhibitors (anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4) and antiangiogenic drugs are burgeoning as first-line treatment therapeutic modalities in HCC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalSeminars in liver disease
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • anti-CTLA-4
  • anti-PD-1
  • checkpoint inhibitors
  • hepatocellular carcinoma
  • liver

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology

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