Cognitive reserve and Alzheimer's disease biomarkers are independent determinants of cognition

Prashanthi D Vemuri, Stephen D. Weigand, Scott A. Przybelski, David S Knopman, Glenn E. Smith, John Q. Trojanowski, Leslie M. Shaw, Charlie S. Decarli, Owen Carmichael, Matthew A Bernstein, Paul S. Aisen, Michael Weiner, Ronald Carl Petersen, Clifford R Jr. Jack

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

81 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate how a measure of educational and occupational attainment, a component of cognitive reserve, modifies the relationship between biomarkers of pathology and cognition in Alzheimer's disease. The biomarkers evaluated quantified neurodegeneration via atrophy on magnetic resonance images, neuronal injury via cerebral spinal fluid t-tau, brain amyloid-β load via cerebral spinal fluid amyloid-β1-42 and vascular disease via white matter hyperintensities on T2/proton density magnetic resonance images. We included 109 cognitively normal subjects, 192 amnestic patients with mild cognitive impairment and 98 patients with Alzheimer's disease, from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study, who had undergone baseline lumbar puncture and magnetic resonance imaging. We combined patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease in a group labelled 'cognitively impaired' subjects. Structural Abnormality Index scores, which reflect the degree of Alzheimer's disease-like anatomic features on magnetic resonance images, were computed for each subject. We assessed Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (cognitive behaviour section) and mini-mental state examination scores as measures of general cognition and Auditory-Verbal Learning Test delayed recall, Boston naming and Trails B scores as measures of specific domains in both groups of subjects. The number of errors on the American National Adult Reading Test was used as a measure of environmental enrichment provided by educational and occupational attainment, a component of cognitive reserve. We found that in cognitively normal subjects, none of the biomarkers correlated with the measures of cognition, whereas American National Adult Reading Test scores were significantly correlated with Boston naming and mini-mental state examination results. In cognitively impaired subjects, the American National Adult Reading Test and all biomarkers of neuronal pathology and amyloid load were independently correlated with all cognitive measures. Exceptions to this general conclusion were absence of correlation between cerebral spinal fluid amyloid-β1-42 and Boston naming and Trails B. In contrast, white matter hyperintensities were only correlated with Boston naming and Trails B results in the cognitively impaired. When all subjects were included in a flexible ordinal regression model that allowed for non-linear effects and interactions, we found that the American National Adult Reading Test had an independent additive association such that better performance was associated with better cognitive performance across the biomarker distribution. Our main conclusions included: (i) that in cognitively normal subjects, the variability in cognitive performance is explained partly by the American National Adult Reading Test and not by biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease pathology; (ii) in cognitively impaired subjects, the American National Adult Reading Test, biomarkers of neuronal pathology (structural magnetic resonance imaging and cerebral spinal fluid t-tau) and amyloid load (cerebral spinal fluid amyloid-β1-42) all independently explain variability in general cognitive performance; and (iii) that the association between cognition and the American National Adult Reading Test was found to be additive rather than to interact with biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease pathology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1479-1492
Number of pages14
JournalBrain
Volume134
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2011

Fingerprint

Cognitive Reserve
Cognition
Alzheimer Disease
Biomarkers
Reading
Amyloid
Pathology
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Verbal Learning
Spinal Puncture
Nonlinear Dynamics
Vascular Diseases
Neuroimaging
Atrophy
Protons

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • cognitive reserve
  • CSF biomarkers
  • mild cognitive impairment
  • MRI

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Cognitive reserve and Alzheimer's disease biomarkers are independent determinants of cognition. / Vemuri, Prashanthi D; Weigand, Stephen D.; Przybelski, Scott A.; Knopman, David S; Smith, Glenn E.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Shaw, Leslie M.; Decarli, Charlie S.; Carmichael, Owen; Bernstein, Matthew A; Aisen, Paul S.; Weiner, Michael; Petersen, Ronald Carl; Jack, Clifford R Jr.

In: Brain, Vol. 134, No. 5, 05.2011, p. 1479-1492.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Vemuri, PD, Weigand, SD, Przybelski, SA, Knopman, DS, Smith, GE, Trojanowski, JQ, Shaw, LM, Decarli, CS, Carmichael, O, Bernstein, MA, Aisen, PS, Weiner, M, Petersen, RC & Jack, CRJ 2011, 'Cognitive reserve and Alzheimer's disease biomarkers are independent determinants of cognition', Brain, vol. 134, no. 5, pp. 1479-1492. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awr049
Vemuri, Prashanthi D ; Weigand, Stephen D. ; Przybelski, Scott A. ; Knopman, David S ; Smith, Glenn E. ; Trojanowski, John Q. ; Shaw, Leslie M. ; Decarli, Charlie S. ; Carmichael, Owen ; Bernstein, Matthew A ; Aisen, Paul S. ; Weiner, Michael ; Petersen, Ronald Carl ; Jack, Clifford R Jr. / Cognitive reserve and Alzheimer's disease biomarkers are independent determinants of cognition. In: Brain. 2011 ; Vol. 134, No. 5. pp. 1479-1492.
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