Coexistent multiple myeloma or increased bone marrow plasma cells define equally high-risk populations in patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

Taxiarchis V. Kourelis, Shaji K. Kumar, Morie A. Gertz, Martha Q. Lacy, Francis K. Buadi, Suzanne R. Hayman, Steven Zeldenrust, Nelson Leung, Robert A. Kyle, Stephen Russell, David Dingli, John A. Lust, Yi Lin, Prashant Kapoor, S. Vincent Rajkumar, Arleigh McCurdy, Angela Dispenzieri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

104 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose There is consensus that patients with light chain (AL) amyloidosis with hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and lytic bone lesions attributable to clonal expansion of plasma cells (CRAB criteria) also have multiple myeloma (MM). The aim of this study was to examine the spectrum of immunoglobulin AL amyloidosis with and without MM, with a goal of defining the optimal bone marrow plasma cell (BMPC) number to qualify as AL amyloidosis with MM. Patients and Methods We identified 1,255 patients with AL amyloidosis seen within 90 days of diagnosis between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010. We defined a population of patients with coexistingMM on the basis of the existence of CRAB criteria (AL-CRAB). Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined the optimal BMPC cut point to predict for 1-year mortality in patients with AL amyloidosis without CRAB to produce two additional groups: AL only (≤ 10% BMPCs) and AL plasma cell MM (AL-PCMM; > 10% BMPCs). Results Among the 1,255 patients, 100 (8%) had AL-CRAB, 476 (38%) had AL-PCMM, and 679 (54%) had AL only. Their respective median overall survival rates were 10.6, 16.2, and 46 months (P = .001). Because the outcomes of AL-CRAB and AL-PCMM were similar, they were pooled for univariate and multivariate analyses. On multivariate analysis, pooled AL-CRAB and AL-PCMM retained negative prognostic value independent of age, Mayo Clinic AL amyloidosis stage, prior autologous stem-cell transplantation, and difference between the involved and uninvolved free light chain. Conclusion Patients with AL amyloidosis who have more than 10% BMPCs have a poor prognosis, similar to that of patients with AL-CRAB, and should therefore be considered together as AL amyloidosis with MM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4319-4324
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Volume31
Issue number34
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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