Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic fungal infection of the desert southwestern United States that can cause devastating disseminated infection in immunocompromised persons. Clinical coccidioidomycosis, which is caused by Coccidioides species, has been well characterized in patients who have had solid organ transplants, but it has rarely been described in patients who have received a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). We report the experience of 121 consecutive HSCT recipients at a single tertiary care institution in an endemic area. One patient had fatal disseminated coccidioidomycosis after receiving an allogeneic transplant, and 2 patients had pulmonary infection before successful autologous HSCT; 1 of these 2 had a reactivation of coccidioidal infection after HSCT but was treated and survived. Coccidioidomycosis was not commonly identified in HSCT recipients, even in the endemic area. A prospective evaluation is required to address the optimal use of coccidioidal serologic tests, antifungal protocols, and secondary prophylaxis in these patients.
- Bone marrow transplantation
- Fungal infection
- Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases