Clostridium difficile was first described as a cause of diarrhea in 1978 and in the last three decades has reached an epidemic state with increasing incidence and severity in both healthcare and community settings. There also has been a rise in severe outcomes from C. difficile infection (CDI). There have been tremendous advancements in the field of CDI with the identification of newer risk factors, recognition of CDI in populations previously thought not at risk and development of better diagnostic modalities. Several treatment options are available for CDI apart from metronidazole and vancomycin, and include new drugs such as fidaxomicin and other options such as fecal microbiota transplantation. This review discusses the epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes from CDI, and focuses primarily on existing and evolving treatment modalities.
- Clostridium difficile infection
- recurrent infection
- risk factors
- severe infection
ASJC Scopus subject areas