OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinicians' characteristics of "high adopters" and "low adopters" of an artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled electrocardiogram (ECG) algorithm that alerted for possible low left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and the subsequent effectiveness of detecting patients with low EF. METHODS: Clinicians in 48 practice sites of a US Midwest health system were cluster-randomized by the care team to usual care or to receive a notification that suggested ordering an echocardiogram in patients flagged as potentially having low EF based on an AI-ECG algorithm. Enrollment was between June 26, 2019, and July 30, 2019; participation concluded on March 31, 2020. This report is focused on those clinicians randomized to receive the notification of the AI-ECG algorithm. At the patient level, data were analyzed for the proportion of patients with positive AI-ECG results. Adoption was defined as the clinician order of an echocardiogram after prompted by the alert. RESULTS: A total of 165 clinicians and 11,573 patients were included in this analysis. Among patients with positive AI-ECG, high adopters (n=41) were twice as likely to diagnose patients with low EF (33.9%) vs low adopters, n=124, (16.9%); odds ratio, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.17). High adopters were more often advanced practice providers (eg, nurse practitioners and physician assistants) vs physicians, Family Medicine vs Internal Medicine specialty, and tended to have less complex patients. CONCLUSION: Clinicians who most frequently followed the recommendations of an AI tool were twice as likely to diagnose low EF. Those clinicians with less complex patients were more likely to be high adopters. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT04000087.
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