Background: We report our experience with 3 strategies for treating hilar and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) including chemoradiotherapy: neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) and orthotopic liver transplant, surgical resection and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (aCRT), and definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT). Methods: We included patients treated from 1998 through 2019. Kaplan-Meier estimates, log-rank testing, and univariate/multivariate Cox models were used to assess outcomes (local progression-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival). Results: Sixty-five patients (nCRT, n=20; aCRT, n=16; dCRT, n=29) met inclusion criteria [median (range) age 65 years (27–84 years)]. Median posttreatment follow-up was 19.1 months (0.8–164.8 months) for all patients and 38.6, 24.3, and 9.0 months for the nCRT, aCRT, and dCRT groups, respectively. At 3 and 5 years, overall survival was 78% and 59% for the nCRT group; 47% and 35%, aCRT group; and 11% and 0%, dCRT group. Compared with the dCRT group, the nCRT group (hazard ratio =0.13, 95% CI: 0.05–0.33) and the aCRT group (hazard ratio =0.29, 95% CI: 0.14–0.64) had significantly improved overall survival (P<0.001). The 5-year local progression-free survival (50% nCRT vs. 30% aCRT vs. 0% dCRT, P<0.001) and 5-year disease-free survival (61% nCRT vs. 30% aCRT vs. 0% dCRT, P=0.01) were significantly better for strategies combined with surgery. Conclusions: Outcomes for patients with extrahepatic CCA were superior for those who underwent nCRT/orthotopic liver transplant or postsurgical aCRT than for patients treated with dCRT. The excellent outcomes after nCRT/orthotopic liver transplant provide additional independent data supporting the validity of this strategy. The poor survival of patients treated with dCRT highlights a need for better therapies when surgery is not possible.
- Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA)
- Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (extrahepatic CCA)
- Hilar cholangiocarcinoma (hilar CCA)
- Liver transplant
- Neoadjuvant chemoradiation
ASJC Scopus subject areas