Background: Leadless pacemakers have emerged as a viable alternative for traditional transvenous pacemakers to reduce the risk of device-related complications. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the real-world clinical outcomes and complications associated with the implantation of leadless pacemaker devices. Methods: Using the National Readmission Database (NRD), we examined patient demographics, and in-hospital and 30-day procedural outcomes after leadless pacemaker implantation from 2016–2018. Our cohort comprised adults (≥18 years) with an ICD-10 procedural code for leadless pacemaker implantation. Results: Our cohort included a total of 7821 patients who underwent leadless pacemaker implantation. Overall immediate procedure-related complications, as defined broadly in this study, occurred in 7.5% of patients. Pericardial effusion without the need for pericardiocentesis occurred in 1.9% of patients, with pericardiocentesis performed in 1.0%. Vascular complications occurred in 2.3% of patients; 0.33% required repair, and device dislodgment occurred in 0.51%. The most significant predictor for procedural complications was end-stage renal disease (odds ratio [OR] 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–2.32; P = .004), congestive heart failure (OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.01–1.62; P = .04), and coagulopathy (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.34–2.34; P <.001). All-cause readmission occurred in 17.9% of patients within 30 days from device implant, with 1.36% of readmissions being procedure related. At 30 days postimplant and after discharge, 0.25% of patients needed a new pacemaker, and 0.18% had pericardial complications. Conclusion: In our large real-life cohort, we found the rate of serious complications after leadless pacemaker implantation to be relatively low and comparable to prior studies in a high-risk population with multiple comorbid conditions.
- Leadless pacemaker
- Transvenous pacemaker
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)