There have been inconsistent reports regarding the clinical features and characteristics of patients diagnosed with spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD). In addition, predictors of mortality in SCAD patients are unknown. We evaluated the prevalence, clinical characteristics, medical management, and predictors of in-hospital mortality of SCAD-related hospitalizations using data from a single health care system from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2018. Among 30,425 patients who presented with an acute coronary syndrome, 375 (1.2%) patients were diagnosed with SCAD. Of these, the mean age was 52.2 ± 12.8 years, 64.3% were women, and 44% were white. SCAD was significantly associated with emotional stress, fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), peripheral artery disease (PAD), and carotid artery disease compared with non-SCAD acute coronary syndrome (all p-values < 0.05). Multivariable analysis showed that atrial fibrillation (OR 2.56; 95% CI 1.01–6.23; p = 0.04), steroid use (OR 7.11; 95% CI 1.31–31.2; p = 0.01), ventricular arrhythmias (OR 4.53; 95% CI 1.58–12.3; p = 0.003), and cardiac arrest (OR 16.82; 95% CI 5.14–56.5; p < 0.001) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality in SCAD patients. In conclusion, SCAD is an uncommon diagnosis that should be considered across all ages and both sexes and in patients with FMD, carotid artery disease, or PAD. Cardiac arrest, ventricular arrhythmia, steroid use, and atrial fibrillation were independently associated with in-hospital mortality in patients with SCAD.
- Spontaneous coronary artery dissection
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine