A gain in chromosome 1q (+1q) is among the most common cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma (MM). It is unclear whether +1q is independently associated with decreased overall survival (OS). The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of +1q on clinical characteristics, treatment response, and survival outcomes. We included 1376 Mayo Clinic patients diagnosed with MM from 2005 to 2018 who underwent fluorescence in situ hybridization testing at diagnosis with a panel including the +1q probe. A gain in 1q was found in 391 patients (28%) and was associated with anemia, hypercalcemia, high tumor burden, International Staging System (ISS) stage 3, high-risk (HR) translocations, and chromosome 13 abnormalities. There was no difference in overall response or deeper responses to proteasome inhibitor (PI)-, immunomodulatory drug (iMiD)-, or PI plus IMiD-based induction. Time to next treatment was shorter in patients with +1q compared with those without +1q (19.9 vs 27.7 months; P < .001). On univariate analysis, +1q was associated with increased risk of death (risk ratio [RR], 1.9; P < .001), and decreased OS was seen in all treatment groups. +1q was independently associated with decreased OS on multivariate analysis when other HR cytogenetic abnormalities, ISS stage 3, and age ≥70 years were included (RR, 1.5; P < .001). Gain of >1 copy of 1q was not associated with worse OS compared with gain of 1 copy (4.9 vs 4.3 years; P = .21). +1q was associated with high tumor burden, advanced disease stage, and HR translocations. It is independently associated with decreased OS, even in the setting of novel therapy and transplant.
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