Clinical application of fish-oil intravenous lipid emulsion in adult home parenteral nutrition patients

Manpreet S. Mundi, Sara L. Bonnes, Bradley R. Salonen, M. Molly McMahon, Robert Martindale, Ryan T. Hurt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: High–ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are noted to contribute to development of intestinal failure–associated liver disease (IFALD) in home parenteral nutrition (HPN). Fish oil (FO) has been added to latest generation of lipid injectable emulsion (ILE) to increase ω-3:ω-6 PUFA ratio; however, appropriate dose of FO to treat IFALD is unknown. Methods: After approval of exclusive FO ILE in the US for pediatric patients, we noted 2 adult patients with ongoing IFALD despite transition to mixed-oil (MO) ILE. They were transitioned to off-label FO ILE after review of literature regarding use of FO ILE in adult HPN patients was conducted to guide management. Results: The first case involves a 40-year-old female receiving HPN with IFALD refractory to MO ILE. MO ILE (with 15% FO) was provided at 50 g/d for 3 d/wk and combined with FO ILE at 50 g/d for 4 d/wk. This combination resulted in improvement in liver studies and allowed for decrease in dextrose calories. The second case involves a 49-year-old male receiving HPN (secondary to complications of necrotizing pancreatitis) who developed IFALD. FO ILE was used as the sole source of lipids and led to improvement in liver function tests. No evidence of essential fatty acid deficiency was found in either case. Conclusions: Current case presentations and review of literature support the use of FO ILE to increase ω-3 PUFAs in patients with IFALD refractory to MO ILE. Additional research is necessary to delineate the dose of FO ILE necessary to achieve benefit.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)839-852
Number of pages14
JournalNutrition in Clinical Practice
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2021


  • fish oil
  • home parenteral nutrition
  • intestinal failure
  • intravenous fat emulsions
  • lipid emulsions
  • liver function tests

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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