Clinical outcomes in prostate cancer after initial screening and treatment for organ-confined disease and in advanced stage after drug intervention can be heterogeneous. Serum prostate-specific antigen which has a modest value as a screening biomarker while widely used in practice in all subsequent stages has limitations for prognostication or prediction of drug efficacy. Recent advances in genomic sciences and the identification of the mutational landscape of organ-confined and advanced-stage disease have contributed to the development of molecular biomarker profiling in addition to serum prostate-specific antigen. Genomic biomarkers are in development for application to screening for lethal disease subtypes, monitoring of disease recurrence after initial treatments, prognostication, as well as for prediction of drug efficacy. The application of translational molecular profiling in prostate cancer has the potential to enhance clinical management and outcomes in the future. Molecular biomarkers in development in organ-confined disease include both DNA- and RNA-based candidate and pathway-based biomarkers. In advanced-stage disease, molecular biomarker profiling has emerged for identifying therapeutic targets, prediction of drug efficacy, and for prognostication of survival that includes germline single nucleotide profiling and somatic aberrations including copy number variation and mutations and RNA-based profiling. This review summarizes the current state of clinical biomarkers used in practice, their limitations, and novel molecular biomarkers being developed for several clinical endpoints in early- and late-stage cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)