Classification, diagnosis and management of myeloproliferative disorders in the JAK2V617F era.

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Abstract

JAK2V617F, a somatic gain-of-function mutation involving the JAK2 tyrosine kinase gene, occurs in nearly all patients with polycythemia vera (PV) but also in a variable proportion of patients with other myeloid disorders; mutational frequency is estimated at approximately 50% in both essential thrombocythemia (ET) and myelofibrosis (MF), up to 20% in certain subcategories of atypical myeloproliferative disorder (atypical MPD), less than 3% in de novo myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia, and 0% in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Accordingly, there is now molecular justification for grouping PV, ET, and MF together in a distinct MPD category (i.e., classic, BCR-ABL(-) MPD) that is separate from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), MDS, and atypical MPD. To date, JAK2V617F has not been described in patients with reactive myeloproliferation, lymphoid disorders, or solid tumor. Therefore, the presence of JAK2V617F strongly suggests an underlying MPD and it is therefore reasonable to consider JAK2V617F-based laboratory tests for the evaluation of polycythemia, primary thrombocytosis, unexplained leukocytosis, bone marrow fibrosis, or abdominal vein thrombosis. Current information on disease-specific prognostic relevance of JAK2V617F is inconclusive and confounded by inter-study differences in the performance of mutation screening assays. Regardless, the discovery of JAK2V617F has reinforced the pathogenetic contribution of JAK-STAT signaling in MPD and identifies JAK2 as a valid drug target.

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology

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