Disease overview: Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a rare, often aggressive myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) defined by persistent mature neutrophilic leukocytosis, bone marrow granulocyte hyperplasia, and frequent hepatosplenomegaly. The seminal discovery of oncogenic driver mutations in colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) in the majority of patients with CNL in 2013 anchored a new scientific framework, deepening our understanding of its molecular pathogenesis, providing a diagnostic biomarker, and rationalizing the use of pharmacological targeting. Diagnostic criteria: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) included the presence of activating CSF3R mutations as a central diagnostic feature of CNL. Other criteria include leukocytosis of ≥25 × 109/L comprising >80% neutrophils with <10% circulating precursors and rare blasts, and absence of dysplasia or monocytosis, while not fulfilling criteria for other MPN. Disease updates: Increasingly comprehensive genetic profiling of CNL has disclosed a complex genomic landscape and additional prognostically relevant mutational combinations. Though prognostic determination and therapeutic decision-making remain challenging, emerging data on prognostic markers and the use of newer therapeutic agents, such as JAK inhibitors, are helping to define state-of-the-art management in CNL.
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