In patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), age >65 years is an adverse prognostic factor. Our objective in the current study was to examine risk factors for survival and treatment outcome in 261 'young' adults with CMML, as defined by age<65 years. In multivariable analysis, lower HB (P = 0.01), higher circulating blast % (P = 0.002), ASXL1 (P= 0.0007) and SRSF2 mutations (P = 0.008) and Mayo-French cytogenetic stratification (P = 0.04) negatively impacted survival. Similarly, leukemia-free survival was independently affected by higher circulating blast % (Po<0.0001), higher bone marrow blast % (P = 0.0007) and the presence of circulating immature myeloid cells (P = 0.0002). Seventy-five (29%) patients received hypomethylating agents (HMA), with the median number of cycles being 5, and the median duration of therapy being 5 months. The over-all response rate was 40% for azacitidine and 30% for decitabine. Fifty-three (24%) patients underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (AHSCT), with a response rate of 56% and a non-relapse mortality of 19%. Survival in young adults with CMML, although higher than in older patients, is poor and even worse in the presence of ASXL1 and SRSF2 mutations. Treatment outcome was more impressive with AHSCT than with HMA and neither was influenced by ASXL1/SRSF2 mutations or karyotype.
ASJC Scopus subject areas