Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia: 2013 update on diagnosis, risk stratification, and management

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Abstract

Disease overview: Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder that is classified as a myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm by the 2008 World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic tumors. It is characterized by absolute monocytosis (>1×109/L) in the peripheral blood that persists for at least 3 months. Diagnosis: The diagnosis of CMML rests on a combination of morphologic, histopathologic and chromosomal abnormalities in the bone marrow. It is important to exclude other myeloproliferative neoplasms and infectious/autoimmune conditions that can cause monocytosis. Risk stratification: Several CMML-specific prognostic models incorporating novel mutations have been recently reported. The Mayo prognostic model classified CMML patients into three risk groups based on: increased absolute monocyte count, presence of circulating blasts, hemoglobin <10 gm/dL and platelets <100×109/L. The median survival was 32 months, 18.5 months and 10 months in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. The Groupe Francophone des (GFM) score segregated CMML patients into three risk groups based on: age >65 years, WBC >15×109/L, anemia, platelets <100×109/L, and ASXL1 mutation status. After a median follow-up of 2.5 years, survival ranged from not reached in the low-risk group to 14.4 months in the high-risk group. Risk-adapted therapy: The Food and Drug Administration has approved azacitidine and decitabine for the treatment of patients with CMML. An allogeneic stem cell transplant can potentially offer a curative option to a subset of CMML patients. It is hoped that with the discovery of several novel mutations, targeted therapies will become available in the near future. Am. J. Heamtol. 88:968-974, 2013.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)967-974
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Hematology
Volume88
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2013

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Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic
Risk Management
decitabine
Mutation
Azacitidine
Neoplasms
United States Food and Drug Administration
Hematopoietic Stem Cells
Chromosome Aberrations
Anemia
Monocytes
Hemoglobins
Stem Cells
Therapeutics
Blood Platelets
Bone Marrow
Transplants
Survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology

Cite this

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title = "Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia: 2013 update on diagnosis, risk stratification, and management",
abstract = "Disease overview: Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder that is classified as a myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm by the 2008 World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic tumors. It is characterized by absolute monocytosis (>1×109/L) in the peripheral blood that persists for at least 3 months. Diagnosis: The diagnosis of CMML rests on a combination of morphologic, histopathologic and chromosomal abnormalities in the bone marrow. It is important to exclude other myeloproliferative neoplasms and infectious/autoimmune conditions that can cause monocytosis. Risk stratification: Several CMML-specific prognostic models incorporating novel mutations have been recently reported. The Mayo prognostic model classified CMML patients into three risk groups based on: increased absolute monocyte count, presence of circulating blasts, hemoglobin <10 gm/dL and platelets <100×109/L. The median survival was 32 months, 18.5 months and 10 months in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. The Groupe Francophone des (GFM) score segregated CMML patients into three risk groups based on: age >65 years, WBC >15×109/L, anemia, platelets <100×109/L, and ASXL1 mutation status. After a median follow-up of 2.5 years, survival ranged from not reached in the low-risk group to 14.4 months in the high-risk group. Risk-adapted therapy: The Food and Drug Administration has approved azacitidine and decitabine for the treatment of patients with CMML. An allogeneic stem cell transplant can potentially offer a curative option to a subset of CMML patients. It is hoped that with the discovery of several novel mutations, targeted therapies will become available in the near future. Am. J. Heamtol. 88:968-974, 2013.",
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N2 - Disease overview: Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder that is classified as a myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm by the 2008 World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic tumors. It is characterized by absolute monocytosis (>1×109/L) in the peripheral blood that persists for at least 3 months. Diagnosis: The diagnosis of CMML rests on a combination of morphologic, histopathologic and chromosomal abnormalities in the bone marrow. It is important to exclude other myeloproliferative neoplasms and infectious/autoimmune conditions that can cause monocytosis. Risk stratification: Several CMML-specific prognostic models incorporating novel mutations have been recently reported. The Mayo prognostic model classified CMML patients into three risk groups based on: increased absolute monocyte count, presence of circulating blasts, hemoglobin <10 gm/dL and platelets <100×109/L. The median survival was 32 months, 18.5 months and 10 months in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. The Groupe Francophone des (GFM) score segregated CMML patients into three risk groups based on: age >65 years, WBC >15×109/L, anemia, platelets <100×109/L, and ASXL1 mutation status. After a median follow-up of 2.5 years, survival ranged from not reached in the low-risk group to 14.4 months in the high-risk group. Risk-adapted therapy: The Food and Drug Administration has approved azacitidine and decitabine for the treatment of patients with CMML. An allogeneic stem cell transplant can potentially offer a curative option to a subset of CMML patients. It is hoped that with the discovery of several novel mutations, targeted therapies will become available in the near future. Am. J. Heamtol. 88:968-974, 2013.

AB - Disease overview: Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder that is classified as a myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm by the 2008 World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic tumors. It is characterized by absolute monocytosis (>1×109/L) in the peripheral blood that persists for at least 3 months. Diagnosis: The diagnosis of CMML rests on a combination of morphologic, histopathologic and chromosomal abnormalities in the bone marrow. It is important to exclude other myeloproliferative neoplasms and infectious/autoimmune conditions that can cause monocytosis. Risk stratification: Several CMML-specific prognostic models incorporating novel mutations have been recently reported. The Mayo prognostic model classified CMML patients into three risk groups based on: increased absolute monocyte count, presence of circulating blasts, hemoglobin <10 gm/dL and platelets <100×109/L. The median survival was 32 months, 18.5 months and 10 months in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. The Groupe Francophone des (GFM) score segregated CMML patients into three risk groups based on: age >65 years, WBC >15×109/L, anemia, platelets <100×109/L, and ASXL1 mutation status. After a median follow-up of 2.5 years, survival ranged from not reached in the low-risk group to 14.4 months in the high-risk group. Risk-adapted therapy: The Food and Drug Administration has approved azacitidine and decitabine for the treatment of patients with CMML. An allogeneic stem cell transplant can potentially offer a curative option to a subset of CMML patients. It is hoped that with the discovery of several novel mutations, targeted therapies will become available in the near future. Am. J. Heamtol. 88:968-974, 2013.

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