Objective: We sought to better define a group of rare and poorly understood myeloproliferative disorders-that are characterized by prominent chronic basophilia in the absence of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) or its molecular equivalent. Methods: We screened our institution's electronic database from 1975 onwards, and identified four such cases. Clinical data and bone marrow pathology were carefully reviewed for these patients. Results: Two patients had prominent manifestations of basophil mediator-release and another presented with pituitary dysfunction. Bone marrow examination uniformly revealed trilineage hyperplasia with basophilia and eosinophilia, dysplastic megakaryocytic hyperplasia, and the absence of megakaryocyte clustering. An abnormal pattern of atypical mast cells was noted in two cases. While disease palliation was effectively achieved with hydroxyurea for one patient, transformation to acute myeloid leukemia was eventually observed in this case. Another patient has achieved long-term disease-free survival after undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Conclusions: Our observations reveal a striking pathologic similarity among all four cases, and suggest this disease, which may be aggressive with the potential to transform into acute leukemia, to possibly represent a distinct clinico-pathologic entity (chronic basophilic leukemia).
ASJC Scopus subject areas