Chromatin

J. A.R. Gordon, R. A. Grandy, J. B. Lian, J. L. Stein, Andre J van Wijnen, G. S. Stein

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Chromatin is a highly organized complex of DNA and proteins and is a principal component of the cell nucleus. Histone proteins help organize DNA into structural units called nucleosomes, which are then assembled into a compact structure (chromatin) and eventually into very large, high-order structures (chromosomes). The localized accessibility of chromatin is largely regulated by posttranslational modifications of both histone proteins and DNA, which have dramatic effects on the regulation of chromatin structure, binding of chromatin-modifying complexes, and transcriptional regulators. This article examines previously established and recently discovered roles of chromatin as a structural component of the nucleus and as a regulator of activation and repression of gene transcriptional activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationBrenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages538-541
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9780080961569
ISBN (Print)9780123749840
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 27 2013
Externally publishedYes

    Fingerprint

Keywords

  • Chromatin
  • Chromosome
  • DNA
  • Epigenetics
  • Euchromatin
  • Heterochromatin
  • Histone modification
  • Histones
  • Nuclear matrix
  • Nucleosomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Gordon, J. A. R., Grandy, R. A., Lian, J. B., Stein, J. L., van Wijnen, A. J., & Stein, G. S. (2013). Chromatin. In Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics: Second Edition (pp. 538-541). Elsevier Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374984-0.00235-7