Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) with intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 (iAMP21-ALL) represents a recurrent high-risk cytogenetic abnormality and accurate identification is critical for appropriate clinical management. Identification of iAMP21-ALL has historically relied on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a RUNX1 probe. Current classification requires ≥ five copies of RUNX1 per cell and ≥ three additional copies of RUNX1 on a single abnormal iAMP21-chromosome. We sought to evaluate the performance of the RUNX1 probe in the identification of iAMP21-ALL. This study was a retrospective evaluation of iAMP21-ALL in the Mayo Clinic and Children's Oncology Group cohorts. Of 207 cases of iAMP21-ALL, 188 (91%) were classified as “typical” iAMP21-ALL, while 19 (9%) cases were classified as “unusual” iAMP21-ALL. The “unusual” iAMP21 cases did not meet the current definition of iAMP21 by FISH but were confirmed to have iAMP21 by chromosomal microarray. Half of the “unusual” iAMP21-ALL cases had less than five RUNX1 signals, while the remainder had ≥ five RUNX1 signals with some located apart from the abnormal iAMP21-chromosome. Nine percent of iAMP21-ALL cases fail to meet the FISH definition of iAMP21-ALL demonstrating that laboratories are at risk of misidentification of iAMP21-ALL when relying only on the RUNX1 FISH probe. Incorporation of chromosomal microarray testing circumvents these risks.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research