Accumulating evidence points to the existence of an inflammatory-metabolic phenotype of heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which is characterized by biomarkers of inflammation, an expanded epicardial adipose tissue mass, microvascular endothelial dysfunction, normal-to-mildly increased left ventricular volumes and systolic blood pressures, and possibly, altered activity of adipocyte-associated inflammatory mediators. A broad range of adipogenic metabolic and systemic inflammatory disorders – e.g. obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis – can cause this phenotype, independent of the presence of large vessel coronary artery disease. Interestingly, when compared with men, women are both at greater risk of and may suffer greater cardiac consequences from these systemic inflammatory and metabolic disorders. Women show disproportionate increases in left ventricular filling pressures following increases in central blood volume and have greater arterial stiffness than men. Additionally, they are particularly predisposed to epicardial and intramyocardial fat expansion and imbalances in adipocyte-associated proinflammatory mediators. The hormonal interrelationships seen in inflammatory-metabolic phenotype may explain why mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and neprilysin inhibitors may be more effective in women than in men with HFpEF. Recognition of the inflammatory-metabolic phenotype may improve an understanding of the pathogenesis of HFpEF and enhance the ability to design clinical trials of interventions in this heterogeneous syndrome.
- Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
- Systemic inflammation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine