Characterization and growth regulation of a rat intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cell line under hormonally defined, serum-free conditions

Piet C. De Groen, Ben Vroman, Karen Laakso, Nicholas F La Russo

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Abstract

Bile duct epithelial cells, or cholangiocytes, proliferate in vivo under a number of pathologic (i.e., partial hepatectomy) and pathophysiologic (i.e., bile duct ligation, malignant transformation) conditions. However, little is known about the possible growth factors that modulate these proliferative responses, in part because an in vitro model to study proliferation of nontransformed, normal cholangiocytes is not available. We report here the development of a rat cholangiocyte cell line (MMRC, minimal media-requiring rat cholangiocytes) that grows under hormonally defined, serum-free conditions on plastic and maintains a cholangiocyte phenotype. Morphologic as well as functional studies indicate that the cell line is polarized and actively transports fluid and electrolytes in an apical to basolateral direction. MMRC, when cultured for 24 mo. and passaged 80 times, have not undergone malignant transformation, because the cell line failed to grow under anchorage-independent conditions or in nude mice. Cellular proliferation is accelerated 2-8-fold by insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor, growth factors known to stimulate tyrosine kinase receptors, and inhibited 2-10-fold by TGFβ and IL-2. Glyco-conjugates of primary (i.e., cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid) and secondary bile acids (i.e., deoxycholic and lithocholic acid) do not alter proliferation at low concentration (1 μM), but are toxic at higher concentration (10 μM). In summary, we have developed and characterized a cholangiocyte cell line derived from normal rat liver, which grows under hormonally defined, serum-free conditions, maintains a nonmalignant, cholangiocyte phenotype, displays morphologic and functional features of polarity, and alters its proliferation rate in response to a variety of growth factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)704-710
Number of pages7
JournalIn Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Animal
Volume34
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1998

Fingerprint

Intrahepatic Bile Ducts
Ducts
Rats
Epithelial Cells
Cells
Cell Line
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Growth
Bile Ducts
Serum
Lithocholic Acid
Phenotype
Chenodeoxycholic Acid
Cholic Acid
Deoxycholic Acid
Hepatocyte Growth Factor
Poisons
Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Hepatectomy
Somatomedins

Keywords

  • Cholangiocyte
  • Epithelia
  • Growth factor
  • Proliferation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

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title = "Characterization and growth regulation of a rat intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cell line under hormonally defined, serum-free conditions",
abstract = "Bile duct epithelial cells, or cholangiocytes, proliferate in vivo under a number of pathologic (i.e., partial hepatectomy) and pathophysiologic (i.e., bile duct ligation, malignant transformation) conditions. However, little is known about the possible growth factors that modulate these proliferative responses, in part because an in vitro model to study proliferation of nontransformed, normal cholangiocytes is not available. We report here the development of a rat cholangiocyte cell line (MMRC, minimal media-requiring rat cholangiocytes) that grows under hormonally defined, serum-free conditions on plastic and maintains a cholangiocyte phenotype. Morphologic as well as functional studies indicate that the cell line is polarized and actively transports fluid and electrolytes in an apical to basolateral direction. MMRC, when cultured for 24 mo. and passaged 80 times, have not undergone malignant transformation, because the cell line failed to grow under anchorage-independent conditions or in nude mice. Cellular proliferation is accelerated 2-8-fold by insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor, growth factors known to stimulate tyrosine kinase receptors, and inhibited 2-10-fold by TGFβ and IL-2. Glyco-conjugates of primary (i.e., cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid) and secondary bile acids (i.e., deoxycholic and lithocholic acid) do not alter proliferation at low concentration (1 μM), but are toxic at higher concentration (10 μM). In summary, we have developed and characterized a cholangiocyte cell line derived from normal rat liver, which grows under hormonally defined, serum-free conditions, maintains a nonmalignant, cholangiocyte phenotype, displays morphologic and functional features of polarity, and alters its proliferation rate in response to a variety of growth factors.",
keywords = "Cholangiocyte, Epithelia, Growth factor, Proliferation",
author = "{De Groen}, {Piet C.} and Ben Vroman and Karen Laakso and {La Russo}, {Nicholas F}",
year = "1998",
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T1 - Characterization and growth regulation of a rat intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cell line under hormonally defined, serum-free conditions

AU - De Groen, Piet C.

AU - Vroman, Ben

AU - Laakso, Karen

AU - La Russo, Nicholas F

PY - 1998

Y1 - 1998

N2 - Bile duct epithelial cells, or cholangiocytes, proliferate in vivo under a number of pathologic (i.e., partial hepatectomy) and pathophysiologic (i.e., bile duct ligation, malignant transformation) conditions. However, little is known about the possible growth factors that modulate these proliferative responses, in part because an in vitro model to study proliferation of nontransformed, normal cholangiocytes is not available. We report here the development of a rat cholangiocyte cell line (MMRC, minimal media-requiring rat cholangiocytes) that grows under hormonally defined, serum-free conditions on plastic and maintains a cholangiocyte phenotype. Morphologic as well as functional studies indicate that the cell line is polarized and actively transports fluid and electrolytes in an apical to basolateral direction. MMRC, when cultured for 24 mo. and passaged 80 times, have not undergone malignant transformation, because the cell line failed to grow under anchorage-independent conditions or in nude mice. Cellular proliferation is accelerated 2-8-fold by insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor, growth factors known to stimulate tyrosine kinase receptors, and inhibited 2-10-fold by TGFβ and IL-2. Glyco-conjugates of primary (i.e., cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid) and secondary bile acids (i.e., deoxycholic and lithocholic acid) do not alter proliferation at low concentration (1 μM), but are toxic at higher concentration (10 μM). In summary, we have developed and characterized a cholangiocyte cell line derived from normal rat liver, which grows under hormonally defined, serum-free conditions, maintains a nonmalignant, cholangiocyte phenotype, displays morphologic and functional features of polarity, and alters its proliferation rate in response to a variety of growth factors.

AB - Bile duct epithelial cells, or cholangiocytes, proliferate in vivo under a number of pathologic (i.e., partial hepatectomy) and pathophysiologic (i.e., bile duct ligation, malignant transformation) conditions. However, little is known about the possible growth factors that modulate these proliferative responses, in part because an in vitro model to study proliferation of nontransformed, normal cholangiocytes is not available. We report here the development of a rat cholangiocyte cell line (MMRC, minimal media-requiring rat cholangiocytes) that grows under hormonally defined, serum-free conditions on plastic and maintains a cholangiocyte phenotype. Morphologic as well as functional studies indicate that the cell line is polarized and actively transports fluid and electrolytes in an apical to basolateral direction. MMRC, when cultured for 24 mo. and passaged 80 times, have not undergone malignant transformation, because the cell line failed to grow under anchorage-independent conditions or in nude mice. Cellular proliferation is accelerated 2-8-fold by insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor, growth factors known to stimulate tyrosine kinase receptors, and inhibited 2-10-fold by TGFβ and IL-2. Glyco-conjugates of primary (i.e., cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid) and secondary bile acids (i.e., deoxycholic and lithocholic acid) do not alter proliferation at low concentration (1 μM), but are toxic at higher concentration (10 μM). In summary, we have developed and characterized a cholangiocyte cell line derived from normal rat liver, which grows under hormonally defined, serum-free conditions, maintains a nonmalignant, cholangiocyte phenotype, displays morphologic and functional features of polarity, and alters its proliferation rate in response to a variety of growth factors.

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