Introduction: Cystic expansion damaging the parenchyma is thought to lead to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Here we characterized genotypic and phenotypic attributes of ADPKD at time of ESKD. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with ADPKD with ESKD evaluated at Mayo Clinic with available abdominal computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Kidney volumes were measured (total kidney volume adjusted for height [HtTKV]), Mayo Image Class (MIC) calculated, ADPKD genotype determined, and clinical and laboratory features obtained from medical records. Results: Differences in HtTKV at ESKD were associated with patient age and sex; older patients and women had smaller HtTKV at ESKD. HtTKV at ESKD was observed to be 12.3% smaller with each decade of age (P < 0.01); but significant only in women (17.8%, P < 0.01; men 6.9%, P = 0.06). Patients with onset of ESKD at <47, 47–61, or >61 years had different characteristics, with a shift from youngest to oldest in male to female enrichment, MIC from 1D/1E to 1B/1C, likely fully penetrant PKD1 mutations from 95% to 42%, and presence of macrovascular disease from 8% to 40%. Macrovascular disease was associated with smaller kidneys in female patients. Conclusion: HtTKV at ESKD was smaller with advancing age in patients with ADPKD, particularly in women. These novel findings provide insight into possible underlying mechanisms leading to ESKD, which differ between younger and older individuals. Cystic growth is the predominant mechanism in younger patients with ESKD, whereas aging-related factors, including vascular disease, becomes potentially important as patients age.
- Characteristics of ESKD in ADPKD
- Polycystic Kidney Disease
- Total Kidney Volume
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