Characteristics of Firearm Brain Injury Survivors in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database

A Comparison of Assault and Self-Inflicted Injury Survivors

Hilary Bertisch, Jason W. Krellman, Thomas Bergquist, Laura E. Dreer, Valerie Ellois, Tamara Bushnik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To characterize and compare subgroups of survivors with assault-related versus self-inflicted traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) via firearms at the time of inpatient rehabilitation and at 1-, 2-, and 5-year follow-up. Design: Secondary analysis of data from the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database (TBIMS NDB), a multicenter, longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Retrospective analyses of a subset of individuals enrolled in the TBIMS NDB. Participants: Individuals 16 years and older (N=399; 310 via assault, 89 via self-inflicted injury) with a primary diagnosis of TBI caused by firearm injury enrolled in the TBIMS NDB. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Disability Rating Scale, Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, race, marital status), injury-related/acute care information (posttraumatic amnesia, loss of consciousness, time from injury to acute hospital discharge), and mental health variables (substance use history, psychiatric hospitalizations, suicide history, incarcerations). Results: Individuals who survived TBI secondary to a firearm injury differed by injury mechanism (assault vs self-inflicted) on critical demographic, injury-related/acute care, and mental health variables at inpatient rehabilitation and across long-term recovery. Groups differed in terms of geographic area, age, ethnicity, education, marital status, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, and alcohol abuse, suicide attempts, and psychiatric hospitalizations at various time points. Conclusions: These findings have implications for prevention (eg, mental health programming and access to firearms in targeted areas) and for rehabilitation planning (eg, by incorporating training with coping strategies and implementation of addictions-related services) for firearm-related TBI, based on subtype of injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2016

Fingerprint

Firearms
Brain Injuries
Survivors
Databases
Wounds and Injuries
Mental Health
Rehabilitation
Marital Status
Suicide
Psychiatry
Inpatients
Hospitalization
Glasgow Outcome Scale
Glasgow Coma Scale
Amnesia
Unconsciousness
Traumatic Brain Injury
Alcoholism
Longitudinal Studies
Cohort Studies

Keywords

  • Brain injuries, traumatic
  • Firearms
  • Rehabilitation
  • Suicide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation

Cite this

@article{e9ef624224834c908055cea3ea2ae5d2,
title = "Characteristics of Firearm Brain Injury Survivors in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database: A Comparison of Assault and Self-Inflicted Injury Survivors",
abstract = "Objective: To characterize and compare subgroups of survivors with assault-related versus self-inflicted traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) via firearms at the time of inpatient rehabilitation and at 1-, 2-, and 5-year follow-up. Design: Secondary analysis of data from the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database (TBIMS NDB), a multicenter, longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Retrospective analyses of a subset of individuals enrolled in the TBIMS NDB. Participants: Individuals 16 years and older (N=399; 310 via assault, 89 via self-inflicted injury) with a primary diagnosis of TBI caused by firearm injury enrolled in the TBIMS NDB. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Disability Rating Scale, Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, race, marital status), injury-related/acute care information (posttraumatic amnesia, loss of consciousness, time from injury to acute hospital discharge), and mental health variables (substance use history, psychiatric hospitalizations, suicide history, incarcerations). Results: Individuals who survived TBI secondary to a firearm injury differed by injury mechanism (assault vs self-inflicted) on critical demographic, injury-related/acute care, and mental health variables at inpatient rehabilitation and across long-term recovery. Groups differed in terms of geographic area, age, ethnicity, education, marital status, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, and alcohol abuse, suicide attempts, and psychiatric hospitalizations at various time points. Conclusions: These findings have implications for prevention (eg, mental health programming and access to firearms in targeted areas) and for rehabilitation planning (eg, by incorporating training with coping strategies and implementation of addictions-related services) for firearm-related TBI, based on subtype of injury.",
keywords = "Brain injuries, traumatic, Firearms, Rehabilitation, Suicide",
author = "Hilary Bertisch and Krellman, {Jason W.} and Thomas Bergquist and Dreer, {Laura E.} and Valerie Ellois and Tamara Bushnik",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1016/j.apmr.2017.04.006",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation",
issn = "0003-9993",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Characteristics of Firearm Brain Injury Survivors in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database

T2 - A Comparison of Assault and Self-Inflicted Injury Survivors

AU - Bertisch, Hilary

AU - Krellman, Jason W.

AU - Bergquist, Thomas

AU - Dreer, Laura E.

AU - Ellois, Valerie

AU - Bushnik, Tamara

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Objective: To characterize and compare subgroups of survivors with assault-related versus self-inflicted traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) via firearms at the time of inpatient rehabilitation and at 1-, 2-, and 5-year follow-up. Design: Secondary analysis of data from the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database (TBIMS NDB), a multicenter, longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Retrospective analyses of a subset of individuals enrolled in the TBIMS NDB. Participants: Individuals 16 years and older (N=399; 310 via assault, 89 via self-inflicted injury) with a primary diagnosis of TBI caused by firearm injury enrolled in the TBIMS NDB. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Disability Rating Scale, Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, race, marital status), injury-related/acute care information (posttraumatic amnesia, loss of consciousness, time from injury to acute hospital discharge), and mental health variables (substance use history, psychiatric hospitalizations, suicide history, incarcerations). Results: Individuals who survived TBI secondary to a firearm injury differed by injury mechanism (assault vs self-inflicted) on critical demographic, injury-related/acute care, and mental health variables at inpatient rehabilitation and across long-term recovery. Groups differed in terms of geographic area, age, ethnicity, education, marital status, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, and alcohol abuse, suicide attempts, and psychiatric hospitalizations at various time points. Conclusions: These findings have implications for prevention (eg, mental health programming and access to firearms in targeted areas) and for rehabilitation planning (eg, by incorporating training with coping strategies and implementation of addictions-related services) for firearm-related TBI, based on subtype of injury.

AB - Objective: To characterize and compare subgroups of survivors with assault-related versus self-inflicted traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) via firearms at the time of inpatient rehabilitation and at 1-, 2-, and 5-year follow-up. Design: Secondary analysis of data from the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database (TBIMS NDB), a multicenter, longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Retrospective analyses of a subset of individuals enrolled in the TBIMS NDB. Participants: Individuals 16 years and older (N=399; 310 via assault, 89 via self-inflicted injury) with a primary diagnosis of TBI caused by firearm injury enrolled in the TBIMS NDB. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Disability Rating Scale, Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, race, marital status), injury-related/acute care information (posttraumatic amnesia, loss of consciousness, time from injury to acute hospital discharge), and mental health variables (substance use history, psychiatric hospitalizations, suicide history, incarcerations). Results: Individuals who survived TBI secondary to a firearm injury differed by injury mechanism (assault vs self-inflicted) on critical demographic, injury-related/acute care, and mental health variables at inpatient rehabilitation and across long-term recovery. Groups differed in terms of geographic area, age, ethnicity, education, marital status, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, and alcohol abuse, suicide attempts, and psychiatric hospitalizations at various time points. Conclusions: These findings have implications for prevention (eg, mental health programming and access to firearms in targeted areas) and for rehabilitation planning (eg, by incorporating training with coping strategies and implementation of addictions-related services) for firearm-related TBI, based on subtype of injury.

KW - Brain injuries, traumatic

KW - Firearms

KW - Rehabilitation

KW - Suicide

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U2 - 10.1016/j.apmr.2017.04.006

DO - 10.1016/j.apmr.2017.04.006

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JO - Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

JF - Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

SN - 0003-9993

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