Rationale: The periengraftment respiratory distress syndrome (PERDS) is an early important cause of morbidity following autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). There are few contemporary data describing PERDS. Objectives: To determine prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes of PERDS after autologous HCT. Methods: This was a historical cohort study of adults undergoing autologous HCT at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, between 2005 and 2016. PERDS was defined as 1) respiratory failure requiring supplemental oxygen within 5 days on either side of the neutrophil engraftment date, 2) new pulmonary opacities on chest imaging, and 3) exclusion of an infectious or cardiac etiology to explain the clinical presentation. Results: Of 3,473 patients undergoing autologous HCT, 167 (4.8%) developed PERDS. Radiographic changes preceded engraftment in 77% of cases. In a multivariable regression model, risk factors for PERDS included female sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.73; P = 0.001), the number of preengraftment platelet transfusions (OR, 1.22; P = 0.002), and more rapid engraftment (OR, 0.72 per day longer; P,0.001). PERDS cases were more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (47.3% vs. 9.5%, P,0.001) and require intubation (20.4% vs. 1.6%, P,0.001). In an adjusted 100-day death analysis, those diagnosed with PERDS were more likely to die (hazard ratio, 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-6.2; P = 0.002). Conclusions: PERDS is a common complication of autologous HCT and is associated with increased mortality and healthcare use. Radiographic evidence of pulmonary involvement precedes hematopoietic recovery. A larger number of platelet transfusions and more rapid engraftment appear to increase risk for PERDS.
- Respiratory failure
- Stem cell transplant
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine