Characteristics and In-Hospital Outcomes of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy Diagnosed During Delivery in the United States From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database

Majed Afana, Waleed Brinjikji, David Kao, Elizabeth Jackson, Thomas M. Maddox, David Childers, Kim A. Eagle, Melinda B. Davis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Scopus citations


Background Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is associated with advanced maternal age, African-American race, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and multiple-gestation pregnancies. Less is known regarding racial differences in risk factors and predictors of adverse in-hospital outcomes. Methods and Results A total of 1,337 women with PPCM were identified with the use of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2004–2011). Clinical profiles and maternal outcomes in delivering mothers with and without PPCM were compared and stratified by race. In multivariate analysis, established risk factors for PPCM were confirmed. Anemia (odds ratio [OR] 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6–2.5; P < .0001), asthma (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5–3.2; P = .0002), smoking (OR 33.6, 95% CI 9.3–159.4; P < .0001), and thyroid disease (OR 5.9; 95% CI 1.5–21.3; P = .01) were associated with PPCM. Risk factors significant in whites, African Americans, and Hispanics were hypertension during pregnancy and anemia. Patients with PPCM had higher rates of in-hospital adverse outcomes (P < .0001), but no differences in race or comorbidities predicted adverse events. Conclusions Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy and anemia were associated with PPCM in whites, African Americans, and Hispanics, providing further evidence that vascular stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of PPCM. Thyroid disorders may represent a novel risk factor for PPCM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)512-519
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Cardiac Failure
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2016



  • heart failure
  • Pregnancy
  • racial differences
  • risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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