Elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, a significant number of coronary events occur in individuals with "normal" serum LDL cholesterol levels. It has been proposed that coronary heart disease (CHD) risk stratification may be improved by evaluating LDL particle size and number and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels in addition to LDL-associated cholesterol levels. This chapter includes a brief review of lipoprotein biology and presents an overview of the association between novel lipoprotein markers and CHD risk. We also discuss methodologies currently available for atherogenic lipid subprofiling.