Challenges to accomplish stringent fluid management standards 7 years after enhanced recovery after surgery implementation—The surgeon's perspective

Fabian Grass, Martin Hübner, Kellie L. Mathis, Dieter Hahnloser, Eric J. Dozois, Scott R. Kelley, Nicolas Demartines, David W. Larson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: This study aimed to analyze fluid management standards in 2 high-volume, enhanced recovery after surgery institutions 7 years after implementation. Methods: Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients undergoing elective, segmental colonic and extensive colorectal resections for benign and malignant pathology (2011–2017). Administration and composition of intravenous fluids, postoperative weight gain, and factors impeding compliance to preidentified fluid thresholds (3L fluid administration, 2.5 kg weight gain) were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors for postoperative adverse events. Results: A total of 5,155 patients were included. Among them, 2,320 patients (45.1%) received >3 L intravenous fluids at postoperative day 0. Fluid totals remained unchanged over the 7-year observation period. Fluid overload was independently associated with postoperative weight gain ≥2.5 kg at postoperative day 2 (odds ratio 1.34, P < .001). Patients with high American Society of Anesthesiologists score (≥3) undergoing open and longer (≥180 minutes) procedures were more likely to exceed both thresholds according to multivariable analysis (all P < .001). Other than open surgery, American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥3, contamination class ≥3, and malignancy, both thresholds (≥3 L: odds ratio 1.76, 95% confidence interval 1.44–2.15, ≥ 2.5 kg: odds ratio 1.62, 95% confidence interval 1.33–1.97) were independent risk factors for postoperative adverse outcomes (occurring in 28.1% of patients). Conclusion: Compliance with fluid thresholds appears to be challenging in patients with comorbidities undergoing open and long procedures. Efforts are encouraged because both thresholds are linked to adverse outcomes and appear to be potentially modifiable in selected patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)313-319
Number of pages7
JournalSurgery (United States)
Volume168
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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